Austin Cary Lot

FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN

 

Map R14 Lot 67, Map R2 Lot 96

Baxter State Park Authority

64 Balsam Drive

Millinocket, ME 04462

Prepared by: Barbara Brusila   LPF #590

March 17, 1998

This plan was approved at the July 7th meeting of the Baxter State Park Authority in Augusta.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Introduction

Property Description And Land Use History

Management Objectives

Topography And Accessibility

Locus/Topographic Map

Soils

Soils Map

Soil Ratings

Boundaries

Timber Resource

Insects, Disease And Weather Influences

Wildlife

Recreation And Aesthetics

Legal Restrictions

Markets

Commercial Harvest Of Wood Products

Estimates of Timber Volumes and Values By Species

Property Map

Stand Descriptions And Management Recommendations

Conclusions

Glossary

Appendix of Habitat Value Maps

Shellfish Harvest Areas

Fish Habitat

Eelgrass Habitat

Cordgrass Habitat

Wading Bird Habitat

Seabird Habitat

Roseate Tern Habitat

Bald Eagle Nesting Locations

Shorebird Habitat

Waterbird Habitat

Wetlands

Landcover

FOREWARD

This plan was prepared at the direction of Irvin C. Caverly, Baxter State Park Director and approved on July 7, 1998 by the Baxter State Park Authority: Charles Gadzik (Chairman), Director of the Maine Forest Service; Drew Ketterer, Maine Attorney General; and Lee Perry, Inland Fisheries and Wildlife Commissioner.

This plan was prepared by a four person advisory committee:

 

For further information regarding this plan, contact Jensen Bissell at Baxter State Park Headquarters, 64 Balsam Drive, Millinocket, Maine 04462. (207) 723-9616

 

INTRODUCTION

This plan presents a review of the Austin Cary Lot (ACL) in Harpswell, Maine and suggestions for its management. It will inform the reader of the nature of the forest, its various attributes and its potential to achieve expressed ownership objectives. It will discuss management options for different areas and suggest a schedule of activities. The property is managed by the Baxter State Park Authority (BSPA), which maintains trustee responsibilities over the trust funds of Governor Baxter.

Forest management is a long term endeavor. The recommendations given here are a first step towards achieving the stated goals. As time passes and the recommendations are implemented, this plan will need updating. This will allow incorporation of changes arising from human and natural, non-human influences.

Overall recommendations are found within the text of the different topics listed in the Table of Contents. Specific stand recommendations are found beginning on page 15. The plan begins with a property description and land use history, followed by a statement of objectives. It then provides an overview of the woodlot regarding its topography, soils, timber, and wildlife resources. Legal restrictions on management activities are mentioned, as well as market conditions. Accompanied with a map, forest stands are described in more detail and specific stand management recommendations are presented. A final table lists the high priority activities, with estimates of income and costs. The plan concludes with a glossary of forestry terms.

The features of this property, although discussed separately in the following pages, together form a mosaic of integrated ecosystems somewhat unique to the surrounding landscape. There are very few, if any, large acreages such as the Austin Cary Lot with extensive water frontage, a variety of forest types, undeveloped for both the present and future, in Harpswell or its surrounding towns. Relative to the many nearby developed areas, this is an undeveloped forest providing important wildlife habitat values and a potential to be a demonstration forest for those who choose to seek it out. The 230 acre Engholm property abutting the south boundary of the Austin Cary Lot is undeveloped (with the exception of one house) as well. These two properties together are an undeveloped forest and shoreline of about 550 acres, which is unusual in the relatively developed town of Harpswell.

PROPERTY DESCRIPTION AND LAND USE HISTORY

The Austin Cary Lot is located on Sebascodegan Island (locally known as Great Island) between Route 24 and Long Reach, and surrounds the southern half of Doughty Cove. It is located on both sides of the Long Reach Road. The ownership totals 222 acres, with 184 acres of woodland, 1 acre of parking lot/gravel pit, 13 acres of freshwater wetland, and 24 acres of saltwater marsh.

Much of the property was once sheep pastureland, as is evidenced by old stone walls and wire fences. These lands were likely abandoned for agriculture beginning around 100 years ago and they have subsequently reverted to forest. Pine would have been a likely species to first seed in to these old fields, and a few of the largest, most limby pine scattered through the property were probably established at that time. Over the years, previous owners harvested wood, usually during times when other farming and fishing work was not pressing. The forest types, ages, and land use history are likely similar to those found in the surrounding properties and, indeed, through the rest of Harpswell and many other southern and mid-coast Maine communities.

In his last will and testament, Percival Baxter established a trust agreement that provided:

"substantial funds to be used by the STATE OF MAINE...to acquire additional lands for recreational and reforestation purposes; and for the maintenance of such other additional lands which may be acquired by said STATE OF MAINE."

In the trust agreement, Baxter directed;

"All of the lands so purchased under this Trust Agreement are to be forever held by the said STATE OF MAINE in TRUST for the benefit of the People of Maine for the development, improvement, use, reforestation, scientific forestry and the production of timber and sale thereof."

After Baxter's death in 1969, the Maine Forest Authority (consisting of the Baxter State Park Authority and two citizen members) acted as trustees of the land acquisition monies and actively searched for suitable purchases. Mrs. Virginia Bailey, then owner of the Austin Cary Lot, declared her willingness to sell her property (which was certified as a Tree Farm in 1969), and had at one time been the home of Austin Cary, one of Maine's first forest researchers and a Maine Forest Commissioner. The property was subsequently sold to the State of Maine, with some deed conditions, with two conveyances in 1973-4, with purchase funds of $25,000 from Baxter trust fund. The letter outlining the proposed conveyance stated the following general understanding:

"...Additionally that the area be held for management of game species, particularly waterfowl for reasons of the marshland habitat, and for a model or demonstration forest. These uses will not be such as to encourage large crowds of people and we do not wish to develop any facilities which will concentrate people on the property. However, I think to be realistic some increase in hikers and observers will be anticipated."

The actual quitclaim deed, executed on December 28, 1973, conveys 5/6 common and undivided interest to the State of Maine as represented by the Maine Forest Authority. The final 1/6 interest was conveyed on March 27, 1974 for the sum of $20,000. Both documents have similar language regarding the conditions of the gift. The 5/6 transfer document reads as follows:

"...on condition that the land be used for a demonstration forest, wildlife management area, or for other educational and scientific uses and this condition shall run with the land for period of ninety-nine years from the date of this instrument. It is the hope of the Grantors that this use shall extend beyond the period of this condition in perpetuity or until such time as such use of this tract would no longer serve a beneficial purpose."

As a condition of the conveyance, the wording above must form the basis for management direction and action on the Austin Cary Lot.

In 1980, an agreement was reached with the Long Reach Road Association involving pro-rata sharing of road maintenance costs. From 1974-1984, the property was administered by the Maine Forest Authority. In 1984, the Maine Forest Authority was abolished and responsibility was briefly transferred to the Bureau of Public Lands. It was then transferred to the BSPA. The BSPA contracted with the Dept. of Conservation (Maine Forest Service) in 1985 to conduct a timber inventory and biomass harvest.

In 1984, the Coffin family (abutters to the north) requested a right-of-way across the Austin Cary Lot on an existing old tote road. This request was denied by the Authority in 1989 because it was deemed to be inconsistent with the conditions of the deed. Stabilization work was done on the tote road and it was closed to vehicular access. Beginning in 1989, the BSPA and the adjacent Harpswell School (MSAD 75) conducted negotiations about developing a parking lot in a gravel pit adjacent to the school. The parking lot was finally completed in 1997. A timber inventory was conducted in 1996 by Mid-Maine Forestry of Warren, and this management plan is being developed with the anticipation of more active management than has occurred in the past.

In 1998, Mid-Maine Forestry was certified under the Resource Manager Certification Program of Scientific Certification Systems, Inc. (SCS). The Austin Cary Lot is part of the certified land base. Management activities carried out on this property will meet the standards set in the three SCS program areas: 1) timber resource sustainability; 2) forest ecosystem maintenance; and 3) socio-economic considerations. Forest certification, commonly known as green certification, is a means of recognizing well-managed, sustainable forestry operations such as the ones planned for the Austin Cary Lot.

Any management activities on the property will be carried out under the supervision of a licensed professional forester, with assistance from and responsibility to the Austin Cary Lot Committee and Baxter State Park Authority Resource Manager.

MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES

A useful document, upon which this plan is partially based, is "A Description and Guide for Management of the Austin Cary Lot", dated May 1993. It was prepared by Jensen Bissell, Resource Manager, for the BSPA working with the Austin Cary Lot Committee at that time. In it, the vision is described as follows.

"It is the vision of the Baxter State Park Authority that management of the Austin Cary Lot be consistent with the guiding conditions expressed in the Deed and, to the extent practical with available funding, exhibit the current levels of knowledge and practice in natural resource management.

It is the vision of the BSPA to foster and create within the Austin Cary Lot a managed landscape that will provide the people of Maine opportunities to view and enjoy forest resources and settings and to view and learn of forest and wildlife management techniques and principles. Land management and supporting facilities will be developed with sensitivity and in harmony with the natural systems inherent to the area.

It is the vision of the BSPA that natural resource management on the Austin Cary lot combine the definitions of "model" and "demonstration" to provide examples of high-quality management.

It is the vision of the BSPA that this area be available for those interested in the management of natural areas, and that facilities would be provided for appropriate numbers of people to safely visit and enjoy the property."

These vision statements are the management objectives, and are based on the trust agreements and deed conditions described previously. It is a foundation assumption of this plan that the term "demonstration forest" denotes active holistic management of the forest resource for demonstration purposes, including the careful and considered harvest and culture of forest vegetation.

TOPOGRAPHY AND ACCESSIBILITY

The topography of the property is striking, with a series of north-south ridges sloping towards extensive salt water frontage. Salt water wetlands are found along Doughty Cove, and fresh water wetlands are found just west of Route 24. Old gravel pits are found along Long Reach Road at the eastern end. The pit south of Long Reach Road was recently developed into a parking area. The pit north of the road is now a part of the adjacent freshwater wetland. The steepest slopes on the property are located along the western boundary, down to the waters of Long Reach.

Access to the property is good, with the privately maintained Long Reach Road bisecting the property. Interior access roads (woods roads) run basically north-south between the ridges. The water bars and diversions established on the woods road running north along the west side of Doughty Cove have prevented erosion on this road. Because of the somewhat poorly drained soils, machinery use of this road should be limited to frozen ground or dry ground in summer.

On the east side of the Cove, the logging road and wood yard used during the 1985 harvest in stand 5 (refer to map on page 14a) are in good shape and could be used again when harvesting in this area. Vehicular access to this road has been blocked. The trail through the southwest portion (stand 3) of the property was once used for logging but is now primarily a recreation trail. It could be used again for timber harvest, but only on frozen ground because of the relatively wet soil. Wood yards could be established at the south end of the old woods road through stand 1 and at the north end of the trail in the southwest part of the property. Wood yards should be seeded to a grass mixture following use.

Additional skid trails will need to be laid out when harvesting in stands 1 and 4. Ledges will limit trail options in these areas. Trail layout should avoid steep uphill/downhill slopes, wet areas, and sharp corners. Limiting timber harvesting in all areas to winter should minimize ruts, soil erosion and compaction hazards.

 

SOILS

The soils information is from the Soil Survey of Cumberland County, Maine prepared by the USDA, Soil Conservation Service. The following table lists the various productivity ratings and factors affecting management for the pertinent soil types. This can be referenced to the map on page 5a, on which the soil types of the Austin Cary Lot are delineated. The letter codes pertain to the particular soil types, as identified in the legend.

The most common soil found on the property is Lyman very rocky fine sandy loam, with slopes ranging from 3-45%. This soil is shallow and somewhat excessively drained. It was formed in glacial till and has rock outcrops. Depth to bedrock ranges from 12-18". Because of the shallowness, seedling mortality is severe and windthrow hazard is moderate. Buxton silt loam is the next most common soil on the property. It is deep, and moderately well drained to somewhat poorly drained. It formed in silty and clayey marine sediments. These two soil series (Lyman and Buxton) together underlie about 70% of the Austin Cary Lot. The remainder of the soils vary from the tidal marsh soils to the very deep and productive Windsor loamy sand soil.

Site Quality; Site Index (SI)

Soil Series


White Pine


Red Spruce


Northern hardwoods

BuB good; SI 60-70 good; SI 50-60 good; SI 52-59
DeB good; SI 60-70 good; SI 50-60 good; SI 52-59
LyB good; SI 60-70 good; SI 50-60 good; SI 52-59
LzB,LzC,LzE good; SI 60-70 good; SI 50-60 good; SI 52-59
Sn fair; SI 50-60 fair; SI 40-50 fair; SI 45-52
Tm does not support growth of commercial trees does not support growth of commercial trees does not support growth of commercial trees
WmB, WmC fair; SI 50-60 fair; SI 40-50 fair; SI 45-52
WsB excellent; SI 70-80 excellent; SI 60-70 excellent; SI 59-66



Factors Affecting Management

Soil Series


Erosion
Hazard

Equipment
Limitation

Seedling
Mortality

Windthrow
Hazard
BuB slight slight slight slight
DeB slight slight slight slight
LyB slight slight severe moderate
LzB, LzC slight moderate severe moderate
LzE moderate severe severe moderate
Sn slight severe severe severe
Tm does not support growth of commercial trees does not support growth of commercial trees does not support growth of commercial trees does not support growth of commercial trees
WmB, WmC slight slight severe slight
WsB slight slight slight slight

*Site Index (SI) is an indicator of the productivity of the soil, which varies for different tree species. It is defined as the height of trees of a given species in or above the main crown canopy at 50 years of age. The higher the number, the higher the productivity.

** from Soil Survey of Cumberland County, Maine, USDA, Soil Conservation Service

 

BOUNDARIES

The boundaries are described in the property deed (Book 5067 page 171). The most well-marked boundary line is the stone wall adjoining the school lot. The northern boundaries of stands 1 and 4 are partially marked by portions of stone walls and old wire fences as depicted on the property map. The above three lines could probably be blazed and painted now based on field evidence. No evidence was found of the 2,500' west boundary of stand 3, although corner pins were located. Corner pins of the south boundary of stand 3 were located, abutting the Engholm property. No evidence was found of the lines around the house lots on Route 24. Field evidence of the southwest boundaries of stand 1, abutting the Lowery property, was not located, although some of the corner pins were. With accurate compass or transit work, flagging these lines between the pins should be possible, and is indeed recommended.

The lines should then be blazed and painted. Once blazed and painted all around, all boundary lines should be inspected yearly, and reblazed and repainted every ten years to preserve current boundary evidence and to protect against timber trespass.

TIMBER RESOURCE

For purposes of accurately describing the forest and setting management priorities, different forest types and stands were identified. These are described in the Glossary and map legend. A timber inventory was conducted in July 1996 and a property map was prepared in order to begin the planning and management process. Detailed stand inventory information is found in the Mid-Maine Forestry Forest Inventory report dated July 31, 1996. Inventory data were taken at 73 variable radius (20 BAF prism) plots on cruise lines running east-west and north-south (true bearing), measuring trees greater than 3" DBH. Data was processed using the INVENT Forest Inventory Program from the University of New Hampshire. Overall pulpwood volume estimate is accurate within + 8% nine times out of ten. Overall sawlog volume estimate is accurate within + 16% nine times out of ten. Error is greater for individual species, products, and values.

An inventory and value estimate of the property was made in 1985 by the Maine Forest Service. At that time, total volume estimate was 1,226 MBF of sawtimber and 1,884 cords of pulpwood. Total cruised volume estimate in 1996 was 786 MBF of sawtimber and 4,909 cords of pulpwood. It would be interesting to be able to compare these two inventories, but it does not seem possible. The first inventory had an extremely high estimate of sawtimber on the property (6 MBF/acre) with very little pulpwood. For example, 81 MBF of oak sawtimber was estimated, with no oak pulpwood. Therefore, the 1996 inventory is believed to be more accurate and should be the basis of management decisions.

In the current inventory, 40% of the overall pulpwood volume is white pine, followed by red oak (23%), red maple (10%), red spruce (10%), and a variety of other species, each representing less than 10% of the overall volume. One-third of the hardwood pulpwood volume is likely to be firewood quality, and is noted as such on the table on page 14. Seventy-four percent of the sawlog volume is white pine, followed by red spruce (12%), red oak (8%), and lesser amounts of red pine, hemlock, and white birch.

Twenty-four percent of the overall timber volume on the property is sawlog grade. This percentage, although already good, could be increased through careful selection harvests, removing the lower quality wood and leaving trees with sawlog volume or potential for future growth. These harvests should also, in the long term, improve the overall sawlog grades as well as percentage of total volume. Trees will not be harvested simply because they reach minimum sawlog size. Many of the smaller red oak, for example, are good quality and will increase in size and value as they are released for further growth. Some of the pine in the pulpwood category would actually be able to be sold as low quality (8') sawtimber, which is relatively more valuable. This product was not tallied separately in the 1996 inventory.

The need for timber stand improvement practices, or TSI, is minimal at this time, because of the maturity of the forest, and the small size of the regeneration in the recently harvested stands 5 and 8. The need for TSI in these two stands should be assessed when the plan is updated, in 10 years.

Overall, this woodlot has very good potential for long term production of quality wood products (sawlogs, boltwood, etc.) while maintaining an aesthetic appearance. White pine and red oak are the two dominant species growing here. They are both valuable timber and wildlife trees.

 

INSECT, DISEASE AND WEATHER INFLUENCES

No serious insect or disease conditions were noted on the property. Hardwoods that are of poor quality often contain any one of many fungal infections which slowly rot the trees' wood. This is sometimes caused by overcrowding, which limits tree growth and vigor and makes them more susceptible to fungal infection. With the exception of Nectria described below, none, however, is significant; they are a normal component of the forest ecosystem.

A limited amount of beech (less than 50 cords) is found in stands 4 and 7. Much of it is infected by Nectria, a fungus disease that will eventually kill the trees. No feasible control method exists. Individual trees which show resistance to the disease should be favored. Crowns of healthier trees could be opened up to increase mast production and thus the dissemination of disease-resistant seed.

White pine blister rust is present and has caused a moderate amount of mortality. The effects of the white pine weevil are evident in the poor form of many of the larger trees, which had been damaged when the stand was more open and the trees were much younger. There is little current weevil evidence. Regenerating pine in the partial shade of selection harvests should minimize future damage by this insect.

WILDLIFE

The property provides diverse habitat types for a variety of wildlife species. Habitat elements present include intermittent fresh water streams and wetlands, salt water marsh, mud flats, deeper salt water frontage, dense softwood growth, shrubby and sprout growth, large den (live hollow) trees, and snags (standing dead) trees.

Many animals and birds feed on the nuts and seeds (hard mast) found on the oak, beech and softwoods. Fruit of apple and cherry trees and blueberry bushes are valuable food as soft mast. The 1985 harvest in stand 5 provided an abundance of sprout growth, but most of it is too tall now to be used by browsers.

During any cutting, certain trees should be retained to benefit wildlife, even though they may have sawtimber value. These include den trees (live hollow trees), snags (standing dead trees), and significant mast producers. They should be painted with a "W", or possibly marked with aluminum tags, to clearly designate them. Snags should not be cut unless they pose a safety hazard during logging. Recommendations vary as to how many wildlife trees per acre should be left. According to A Forester's Guide to Managing Wildlife Habitats in Maine, a rule of thumb is to leave a minimum of four wildlife (den or snag) trees greater than 6" in diameter per acre. It is recommended that for a ten acre area, the following wildlife trees should be present:

6-14" diameter trees---20-25 trees,

15-18" diameter trees--- 10-15 trees, and

18"+ diameter trees---4-5 trees.

These ten acre numbers are averages; designated wildlife trees may be clumped into areas such as along rock walls or woodland edges. In addition to existing wildlife trees, potential future ones should be identified and allowed to grow old and die naturally.

Any recommended cutting will need to avoid sensitive habitats such as the shoreline and vernal pools, and be timed to minimize disruption of important nesting and young rearing seasons in spring and early summer. Harvesting will help maintain and increase age (ranging now from 1-100+ years old) and structural diversity (both horizontal and vertical) within the forest ecosystem, which will in turn create more varied habitats.

Open areas resulting from any small patch cuts increase available browse, as well as providing abundant cover and nesting sites for several species of songbirds and game birds. Seeding of log yards and roads after use with conservation mix will improve forage opportunities for many species. Opportunities for viewing wildlife will be improved by an extended road/trail network, either in tandem with harvesting or as a separate project.

Vernal pools are depressions which fill with water from snow melt and spring runoff. The absence of fish in these pools makes them ideal breeding and feeding areas for local amphibian populations. Any management activity which impacts a pool directly or the water regime of a vernal pool indirectly may affect the survival of these amphibians. Maine is currently working on best forestry management practices for conserving vernal pool habitats. The best time to look for vernal pools is in the spring. They are usually found in shallow depressions in the ground, at the bottom of ridges, etc.

The fresh water wetland located just west of Route 24 has open patches of water only for brief periods in the spring. It supports a growth of alders, winterberry, and scattered red maple.

Scattered apple trees are found throughout the property, especially in stands 2 and 6. These valuable wildlife trees should be pruned of dead wood and released from competing vegetation, then fertilized and given a green wood pruning in 2-3 years. This would increase their health, longevity, and apple production.

The Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife (MDIFW) has identified the Long Reach/Doughty Cove areas as marine waterfowl habitat. The marine bird priority ratings for Long Reach and Doughty Cove are: medium-low in fall, low in winter and nesting season (May1-June 30), medium in spring, and medium-high in post-nesting season (July 1-August 31). Marine wildlife expected to be found include: cormorants, great blue herons, black ducks, goldeneyes, bufflehead, osprey, shore birds, white-winged scoters, black-backed gull, herring and other gulls. The 75' no-cut buffer recommended in this plan around all water and wetlands will provide an undisturbed riparian zone.

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has developed habitat maps as part of the Coastal Ecosystems Program. Sensitivity levels for a variety of coastal species are included in the mapping effort. The ACL is listed as low or no sensitivity for all mapped species. Habitat maps pertinent to the ACL are included in the Appendix of Habitat Value Maps.

Active bald eagle nests are protected by the essential habitat law. Large stick nests found during forest exams should be protected with a no-cut buffer a horizontal distance of twice the height of the nest tree. Within 250' of the nest tree, there should be only light partial cuts, not exceeding 30% of the basal area of trees 5" or greater. Timber harvests near these nests should occur only when the birds are not present (Oct.-Feb.)

The status of the bald eagle in Maine was changed from endangered to threatened in 1998 due to the population recovery of the species. Key to this recovery is protection of active eagle nest sites through the Essential Habitat Law. Activities within 1/4 mile of mapped nests are regulated by the MDIFW. An eagle nest less than a mile west of the Austin Cary Lot fledged 3 eaglets during 1997. Immature eagles have been observed roosting in white pine trees on the property during the fall and early winter. Eagles usually select trees which are taller than the surrounding tree canopy for nesting and roosting and prefer white pines if they are available.

To maintain the attractiveness of the eagle habitat on the property, the management goal is to provide a continuous supply of at least 4 super-story white pine trees within each 1,000 foot segment of the riparian zone.

Other than the immature eagles mentioned previously, no evidence of threatened or endangered plants or animals was noted during the field work. Should such plants or animals be discovered, appropriate measures will be adopted to ensure protection of their habitat.

 

 

RECREATION AND AESTHETICS

Maintaining an aesthetic appearance of the woodland is important. Harvesting recommended in this plan will change the appearance of the woods, making it more open, but should still keep a pleasing appearance. Following recommended harvesting, logging roads could be used as walking trails. Slash height should be limited to 3' (and less near the Long Reach Road) for both aesthetics and minimization of fire hazard. Keeping slash to this uniform low height, avoiding leaving high tops of cut trees, should result in aesthetically pleasing appearance of the forest. Wood debris from logging yards should be removed or pushed levelly back into the woods. Yards should be reseeded after use is complete.

Recreation is not a use of the lot which is encouraged, nor is it prohibited. A condition of the conveyance states that "...These uses will not be such as to encourage large crowds of people and we do not wish to develop any facilities which will concentrate people on the property. However, I think to be realistic some increase in hikers and observers will be anticipated." The parking area constructed in 1997 adjacent to the Harpswell Island School is kept gated. However, the small parking area in front of it along the Long Reach Road is open and should be more than adequate for any recreational users of the lot. Evidence of ATV use and foot traffic for clamming or worming exists. The nearby school has developed an informal trail on the property near the school grounds. More pro-active involvement with the school is a possibility, which would serve the condition that the land be used "...for other educational and scientific uses." Possibilities include further de velopmen t of the nature trail, scientific experiments and/or observations with the students, or other environmental education programs.

In general, recreational use of the property should be monitored informally. Unobtrusive wood signs could be established to point out special features of the property's management, such as the 1985 biomass harvest, and other upcoming harvests, apple tree release, etc. A sign could be posted in tribute to Governor Baxter and the foresight and generosity of Virginia Bailey along with an abstract of the controlling deed language. Establishment of these signs would be in accordance with the condition that the property be used as a demonstration forest. Signage should be adequate to explain to the public the special features and purposes of the property, but not so abundant as to give the impression that the area is a park.

 

LEGAL RESTRICTIONS

Land within 250' of the normal high water mark of Long Reach is classified by the Town as a Shoreland Residential Zone. Harvesting in this zone is limited to no more than 40% of the timber volume in any 10 year period, leaving a well-distributed stand of trees. The land within 250 feet of the freshwater wetland and along the east side of Doughty Cove, and its west side south of Long Reach Road is classified as a Resource Protection zone. The same state-standard shoreland zone restrictions apply here.

Although not required legally, this plan recommends that a no-cut buffer of 75' should be left along all shoreline and wetland edges in order to provide additional protection. Because of the extensive shore and wetland frontage, this 75' setback results in no harvesting on 26 acres of woodland. This includes 8 acres in stand 1; 4 acres in stand 2; 2 acres in stand 3; 2 acres in stand 4; 2 acres in stand 5; 2 acres in stand 6; 2 acres in stand 7; and all four acres of stand 9. This no-harvest acreage can be viewed as a benchmark for comparison to the other managed areas. An additional 4 acres at the south end of stand 3 has been set aside as an old forest retention area, where no harvesting will be conducted. This area is discussed further in the Stand 3 description beginning on page 18.

Before any commercial harvesting occurs, the Authority (or their agent) must file a harvest notification form with the Maine Forest Service. Year-end reports of harvested volumes and stumpage prices are a part of this requirement.

For harvest areas greater than 10 acres, all boundary lines within 200' of cutting must be clearly marked. It is highly recommended that these lines be marked even if the harvest area is less than 10 acres. During harvesting operations of any size all slash must be removed at least 25' from adjoining properties and 50' from water and roads.

 

 

MARKETS

Pulpwood (softwood, hardwood and poplar) would most likely be trucked to one of these mills - Mead Co. in Rumford, International Paper Co. in Jay, SD Warren in Hinckley or Westbrook, or Madison Paper in Madison. Firewood could be sold to local dealers or customers. There are quite a few sawmills in Cumberland and the surrounding counties. Depending on the logging contractor and/or trucker, logs would likely be sold to one of these local mills. Wood markets fluctuate in price, product specifications, and demand. Current market conditions should be assessed as part of any timber harvesting activity.

 

 

COMMERCIAL HARVESTS OF WOOD PRODUCTS

Properly done, commercial harvests are one part of an environmentally sound, multiple-use forest management system. Through cutting, a forester manipulates the vegetative structure within a forest stand to attain stated objectives. Sawtimber can still be grown and harvested while managing wildlife habitat and improving recreational opportunities. Typically, low quality and unhealthy trees and/or mature individuals are chosen for removal. This allows for faster growth to occur in the more valuable, vigorous, immature trees. It also favors the release or establishment of natural regeneration of desired species. The regeneration is part of the property's long-term potential. Thus, proper harvesting not only generates immediate income for the owner, but, over time, can also improve the health and quality and overall value of the timber and wildlife resources of the property.

Commercial harvesting should be conducted on a marked tree or species designation basis (for example, harvest all merchantable fir in a given stand), and under the supervision of a professional forester. This will ensure that the selection of trees for cutting is in the best short- and long-term interest of the people of Maine, and leaves a desirable residual stocking of trees. In addition, the forester supervises harvesting operations to ensure proper utilization, minimal felling and skidding damage to residual trees, and to help assure accurate payment for harvested wood products.

All harvesting systems (cable skidder, forwarder, etc.) will be considered, with the choice based on availability, contractors, timing, and impacts on the forest.

To realize the best price for the marked trees, sales should be conducted on a competitive bid basis or by direct negotiation with reputable contractors. The timing of specific sales is dependent on economic and silvicultural considerations, as well as seasonal ground conditions.

Recreational and aesthetic concerns and wildlife needs are given appropriate emphasis during timber marking and while supervising harvesting activities. Yards and skid roads are located to minimize soil erosion and visual impact, as well as to improve interior access. Cutting along existing roads, trails, streams and vistas needs to be especially careful to maintain an aesthetically pleasing appearance. Appropriate numbers of wildlife trees and other critical areas should be left to provide both cover and food.

This woodlot contains a significant volume of timber, a modest portion of which is recommended for harvest. Because of the high visibility of the property and the desire to do a well-supervised, careful job, it makes sense to conduct several smaller sales and spread out the harvest and income over a continuous period. Income production is not a priority. This series of smaller, lighter harvests will maintain a continuous overstory better than would less frequent but more intensive harvests. Stewardship of the forest, assuring that harvesting is done on a sustainable basis, is of primary importance on the Austin Cary lot. This fits the deed condition that the land be used as a "demonstration forest, wildlife management area." This demonstration will be available to any who are interested. The Harpswell Islands School has already expressed interest in working cooperatively on projects on the Austin Cary Lot.

ESTIMATES OF TIMBER VOLUMES AND VALUE BY SPECIES

 

Baxter State Park Authority

Austin Cary Lot

Harpswell, Maine

July 31, 1996

 

 

Products, SpeciesVolume(1,2) Stumpage Rate(3)Value

1 Sawtimber volume estimate is + 16% nine times in ten; pulpwood estimate is +8%. Error is greater for individual species or products.

2 Pulpwood volumes include topwood from sawtimber trees.

3 Stumpage price estimates based on recent local averages, Summer, 1996.

 

*Species include: sugar maple, red maple, white ash, poplar, black cherry, white birch, beech, red oak.

 

Barbara Brusila, LPF # 590




STAND DESCRIPTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Refer to Forest Inventory Report dated July 31, 1996 for additional stand statistics. Harvest level recommendations described in the following pages are conservative ones, and do not include the 30 acres (26 acres of shoreline and 4 acres in stand 3) designated as no-harvest areas. The long-term (50+ years) goal of the marked wood selection harvests mentioned in the following pages is to convert the stands to uneven-aged or all-aged management. This will gradually change the structure of the stand to include more small patches of regeneration than currently exist, while maintaining an overstory of trees of a variety of sizes and ages, including some trees which will be allowed to grow through biological maturity to death. The selection system will be individual tree or group selection, up to a group 1/4 acre in size. With the following recommendations, regeneration should become established naturally, without the need for replanting. No herbicides will be used on the prope rty.

 

STAND 1 - MIXEDWOOD POLE/SAWTIMBER 65 acres

This stand, the largest one on the property, is located north of Long Reach Road, between Long Reach and Doughty Cove. It is also accessed by the old tote road running north-south. Several north-south ledges are located between the tote road and Long Reach. A small stream flows northeast into a Doughty Cove inlet, crossing the tote road quite near the inlet. At least one selection harvest was conducted here, approximately 40 years ago. A network of old overgrown logging roads exists. With the no-harvest zone within 75' of the shore, approximately 8 acres of the stand will not be cut.

As can be seen in the above chart, white pine is the most dominant species by basal area, followed by red spruce, red oak, red maple, and other species. A few scattered red pine grow here. They should be protected because they are uncommon to this property. The stand structure is approaching uneven-age status, and will likely achieve it following the next harvest. Average tree diameter is 9-10", and ranges from 6-40". The few scattered larger trees are likely over 100 years old, and present when the site was still pasture. Basal area is 122 ft2/acre. Site quality is good, (with the exception of ledge tops), and potential growth, under management, could be 1 cord/acre/year. Tree quality is generally good.




 

As can be seen in the previous charts, pine is the most common sawtimber species, followed by spruce. There is very little hardwood sawtimber. Pine is also the most common pulpwood species, followed closely by red spruce, red oak, red maple, and white birch. Standing volume is 5.1 MBF of sawtimber plus 27.7 cords of pulpwood per acre. Regeneration, dense in some areas, is sapling fir, spruce, pine, red maple, and white birch. Blueberry bushes grow on the more open peninsula extending into Long Reach.

Songbird habitats provided in this red oak/white pine/red maple forest are preferred by blue jay, tufted titmouse, white-breasted nuthatch, woodpeckers, thrushes, ovenbird, common yellowthroat, towhee, and scarlet tanager. Other birds expected to utilize this habitat are sharp-shinned and Coopers hawks, wild turkey, and barred owl. Loons and pied-billed grebes are found along the shoreline. The Eastern box turtle and red-bellied snake are also likely to be found in this habitat. Mammals with an affinity for this habitat include gray squirrel, flying squirrel, white-footed mouse, and gray fox.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The long term goal (referring to 50+ years into the future) is to maintain the aesthetic appearance of this stand while conducting periodic selection harvests to improve the value and growth of the remaining trees. Cutting cycle should be every 15 years or so, with the heaviest volume (primarily lower quality timber) being removed in the upcoming improvement cut. Subsequent harvests would be lower volumes but successively higher percentages of sawtimber. Harvest in this stand should be conducted after stand 2, the highest harvest priority area on the lot. One-fourth to one-third of the standing volume should be removed in a marked wood selection harvest on the 57 harvestable acres, yielding an estimated 400 cords and 72 MBF. Residual basal area would be 80-90 ft2/acre. Following the harvest, diversion ditches and water bars should be re-established. The stream crossing on the tote road should be either temporarily bridged or protected by slash, removed after use.

STAND 2 - SOFTWOOD SAWTIMBER 23 acres

This stand is located along the west edge of Doughty Cove. It is accessible via the old tote road, Long Reach Road, and the trail on the south side of Long Reach Road. The land slopes gently towards the Cove. Once pastureland, the area has regrown to white pine. In fact, a few of the acres in the northern-most part of the stand were planted but never thinned. The trees are an estimated 60 years old. The part of the stand south of the Road appears to be slightly older, with evidence of partial harvest about 40 years ago. With the no-harvest zone within 75' of the shore, approximately 4 acres of the stand will not be cut.

As can be seen in the above basal area chart, white pine is the dominant species, with a few scattered oak and spruce trees. Regeneration is sapling balsam fir, dense in some places. Tops of many of the pines are small due to years of overcrowding. The stand is even-aged, with an average diameter of 13", and ranging from 4-26". The stand is overstocked, with basal area of 174 ft2 /acre. Site quality is good, although recent growth has been minimal. With management, growth should be over one cord per acre per year. Tree quality is fair due to past weevil damage.




As can be seen in the above charts, white pine dominates both the pulpwood and sawtimber categories. Standing volume is 38.7 cords plus 11 MBF per acre. Much of the sawtimber is lower grade, although percent sawtimber of total volume is high (44%).

Ground plants include wild sarsaparilla, Canada mayflower, and starflower. Leaving a 75' uncut buffer along the shore will serve as a comparison of unmanaged forest to contrast to management in the rest of the stand. It will also protect the shoreline visually, and minimize erosion and sedimentation.

The most significant wildlife feature of this forest is its use by bald eagles for winter roosting. Care will be taken to retain a minimum of 12 large white pine per mile of shoreline as potential nest/roost trees for the eagles. Other bird species which prefer white pine forests include long-eared owl, saw-whet owl, pileated woodpecker, red-breasted nuthatch, and solitary vireo. The adjacent salt marsh habitat is preferred by herons, black duck, pintail, shoveler, osprey, and short-eared owl. The red-bellied snake and black racer are found in this habitat type. Deer mice, white-footed mice, red fox, and red-backed vole also prefer white pine habitats.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The long term goal is to maintain the aesthetic appearance of this stand while conducting periodic selection harvests to improve the value and growth of the remaining trees, and to maintain it as a pine stand. A marked wood selection harvest should be conducted here. Because of the stand density, opportunity for increased tree growth and establishment of pine regeneration, harvest priority is higher here than on any other stand in the property. Trees harvested should include those with the lowest live-crown ratios, and those which are poorly formed, and/or infected by the blister rust.

Approximately 25% of the volume should be removed in the 19 harvestable acres, bringing the basal area down to about 130 ft2. Estimated harvest volumes are 180 cords and 52 MBF. A heavier harvest would likely result in blowdowns. Some of the larger, poorly formed trees with reasonable crowns should be left for the next harvest, in 15 years or so. With this light harvest, balsam fir will likely regenerate heavily and compete with pine seedlings. Precommercial weeding may be necessary at a later date to release pine seedlings.

The apple trees north of the road should be pruned and released. Slash resulting from harvesting within 50' of the Long Reach Road should be left no higher than 2'.

 

 

STAND 3 - MIXEDWOOD POLETIMBER 20 acres

This stand is located south of the Long Reach Road, along the western line. It is accessible by a north-south trail, once used as a logging road but now overgrown. The land slopes gently towards the Cove, with ledgy areas along the unmarked west line. There is evidence of past cutting, although not recent. The trail passes quite close to the marsh at the south end, and has been cut into the side of the hill. It is stable now, but special care should be taken when operating machinery, whether it's an ATV or harvesting equipment, to prevent erosion here. With the no-harvest zone within 75' of the shore, approximately 2 acres will not be harvested.

Adjacent to this shoreland zone, an additional 4 acres has been set aside as a no-harvest area, with the goal of old forest retention. This area is located at the south tip of stand 3, abutting the Engholm property. A limited amount of harvesting was conducted at the northern end of these 4 acres 35-40 years ago, but did not reach into the grove of larger pine (18"+ DBH) along the south line. This block of land, set aside from harvesting, can provide a comparison to managed areas within the Austin Cary Lot demonstration forest.

As can be seen in the previous chart, red oak and white pine each represent slightly less than one-third of the total basal area. The remaining third is red spruce, red maple, along with a few fir and white birch. The stand is basically two-aged, based on past cutting history, with some trees +40 years old, and others +70. Average tree diameter is 8", and ranges from 4-24". Basal area is 120 ft2/acre. Overall site quality is good, but fair on areas shallow to ledge. Potential growth, under management, is almost 1 cord per acre per year. Tree quality is good.



Fifty-nine percent of the sawtimber volume is white pine, followed by red spruce (23%), and red oak (18%). Thirty-seven percent of the pulpwood volume is pine, followed by oak (26%), red maple (14%), and spruce (14%). Overall stand volume is 23.2 cords plus 2.7 MBF per acre. Regeneration is sapling balsam fir, red oak, red maple, and red spruce.

Songbird habitats provided in this red oak/white pine/red maple forest are preferred by blue jay, tufted titmouse, white-breasted nuthatch, woodpeckers, thrushes, ovenbird, common yellowthroat, towhee, and scarlet tanager. Other birds expected to utilize this habitat are sharp-shinned and Coopers hawks, wild turkey, and barred owl. Loons and pied-billed grebes are found along the shoreline. The Eastern box turtle and red-bellied snake are also likely to be found in this habitat. Mammals with an affinity for this habitat include gray squirrel, flying squirrel, white-footed mouse, and gray fox.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The long term goal is to maintain the aesthetic appearance of this stand while conducting periodic selection harvests to improve the value and growth of the remaining trees. A marked wood selection harvest could be conducted here in the 14 harvestable acres, but priority is low compared to other stands on the property. However, it would make logistical sense to do a light harvest (about 25% of volume and basal area) here when the adjacent stand 2 is harvested, since they would both use the same yard area and main skid trail. Approximately 10 MBF and 85 cords could be harvested.

 

 

STAND 4 - MIXEDWOOD POLE/SAWTIMBER 24 acres

This stand is located along the east side of the Cove and north of the biomass harvest area. It is accessed by the logging road used in that harvest, as well as by a network of old regrown logging roads used in previous harvests. The land slopes west towards the Cove. It has a history of partial harvests similar to stand 1, although sawtimber volume and overall percentage is lower here. With the no-harvest zone within 75' of the shore, approximately 2 acres of the stand will not be cut.

As can be seen in the above chart, white pine, red oak, red maple, and hemlock each represent similar percentages of the basal area. White birch, poplar, beech, spruce, and sugar maple are also present. The stand structure is approaching uneven-aged. Average tree diameter is 9", and ranges from 6-26". Total basal area is 128 ft2/acre. Potential growth under management is almost 1 cord per acre per year. Overall tree and site quality is good.



As can be seen above, 43% of the sawtimber is white pine, followed by hemlock (34%), red oak (12%), and red spruce (9%) Red oak, red maple, and white pine each represent about one-fourth of the pulpwood volume. Other species include hemlock, poplar, white birch, and red spruce. Total stand volume is 30.6 cords plus 2.7 MBF per acre. Regeneration is sapling size, dense in some areas, and composed of: moose maple, sugar maple, hornbeam, red spruce, balsam fir, hemlock, red maple, and white birch, with scattered white ash and white pine. Beaked hazelnut is present as well. Overall species diversity is greater here than in any other stand.

Although similar to stands 1 and 3 in other ways, this stand contains a significant amount of hemlock not present in the other stands. Bird species which prefer stands with a hemlock component include saw-whet owl, red-breasted nuthatch, hermit thrush, and black-throated green warbler. The northern red-bellied snake prefers hemlock stands. Red squirrel, deer mouse, and porcupine also prefer hemlock.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The long term goal is to maintain the aesthetic appearance of this stand while conducting periodic selection harvests to improve the value and growth of the remaining trees. A marked wood harvest should be conducted in the 22 harvestable acres in the next ten years, removing approximately one-third of the basal area. This would release some of the sapling regeneration and focus the growth on trees with sawlog potential. Approximate harvest volumes would be 220 cords and 20 MBF. Scattered sugar maple and beech trees should be left uncut for their diversity and wildlife values.

 

 

STAND 5- MIXEDWOOD POLETIMBER 25 acres

This stand is north of the Long Reach Road, and abuts the freshwater wetland. It is accessed by a truck road, with a wood yard near the center of the stand. The yard is on a hilltop, and the ground slopes gently in all directions from there. Some of the most productive soil on the property, Woodbridge, is found here. A biomass harvest was conducted here by the Maine Forest Service in 1985, providing an income of $1,831. Volumes removed were: 816 tons of chips, 4.5 MBF of sawtimber, and 27 cords of hardwood. With the no-harvest zone within 75' of the wetland, approximately 2 acres of the stand will not be harvested.

As can be seen in the previous chart, half of the basal area is red oak, one-quarter is white pine, and a variety of species (red maple, red spruce, hemlock, fir, and white birch) make up the remainder. The stand is two-aged, with an overstory about 60 years old and the understory 12 years old. Average tree diameter is 8", and ranges from 4-22". Basal area is 76 ft2/acre, the lowest of any stand on the property. Site quality is good, with the exception of areas shallow to ledge. Growth rates are high for both age classes of trees. Quality of the overstory is good; many trees have sawlog potential. Heavy browsing on the younger trees will somewhat limit their sawlog potential in the future.




As seen above, red oak and white pine each represent almost half of the sawtimber volume, with spruce comprising the remainder. More than half of the pulpwood volume is oak, one-fourth is white pine, and the rest is a mixture of species. Standing volume is 14.1 cords plus 1.7 MBF per acre. Ground plants include ferns, wild sarsaparilla, blueberries, beaked hazelnut, and starflower.

This stand is somewhat more open than others because of the previous harvest. This more open character would be preferred by fox sparrow and white-throated sparrow, garter snake, weasel, skunk, snowshoe hare, cottontail rabbit, and woodland jumping mouse.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The long term goal is to maintain the aesthetic appearance of this stand while conducting periodic selection harvests to improve the value and growth of the remaining trees. No harvesting is necessary now. The next harvest should be done in 15-20 years. In the meantime, the access road and yard could be used when harvesting stand 4. Other than during that harvest time, the access road should be kept thoroughly blocked to prevent illegal dumping.

 

 

STAND 6 - SOFTWOOD SAWTIMBER 7 acres

This stand is located in three small areas: on both sides of the parking area, and near the northeast line, west of the freshwater wetland. The first two areas are accessible from the parking area. The third would be accessed by developing a woods road through stand 4. The terrain is generally flat. Once pastureland, this stand grew back to poor quality pine, damaged by the white pine weevil. A limited amount of harvesting was conducted over 20 years ago. With the no-harvest zone within 75' of the wetland, approximately 2 acres will not be harvested.

As can be seen in the above chart, 85% of the basal area is white pine, with white birch, black cherry, white ash, and balsam fir comprising the remainder. The stand is even-aged, probably 50 years old. Average tree diameter is 13" and ranges from 6-26". Basal area is 160 ft2/acre. Growth rate of the pine is high, potentially over 1 cord per acre per year under management, but quality is low because of weevil damage and large tree limbs.



All of the sawtimber volume is white pine, as well as 88% of the pulpwood volume. Stand volume is 2.4 MBF plus 37.6 cords per acre. Ground plants include: Rubus, nannyberry, starflower, sumac, Canada mayflower, wild sarsaparilla, and beaked hazelnut. Scattered apple trees are present as well.

Bird species which prefer white pine forests include long-eared owl, saw-whet owl, pileated woodpecker, red-breasted nuthatch, and solitary vireo. The red-bellied snake and black racer are found in this habitat type. Deer mice, white-footed mice, red fox, and red-backed vole also prefer white pine habitats.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The long term goal is to maintain the aesthetic appearance of this stand, and to protect the wetland. Any hazard trees near the parking area should be harvested. A marked wood selection harvest could be conducted in the section along the north line (2-3 acres) when stand 4 is harvested. Other than that, and regular inspection of trees near the parking lot, no management is necessary.

STAND 7 - HARDWOOD POLETIMBER 11 acres

This stand, the only hardwood one on the property, is located south of the Long Reach Road and east of Doughty Cove. The land slopes gently west towards the Cove, and could be accessed by developing woods roads connecting with the gravel Road. Soils are generally well drained and shallow to ledge in places. Once pastureland, this area grew back to hardwoods. There is no evidence of recent cutting, but some of the trees are of sprout origin, indicating some harvest activity 30+ years ago. With the no-harvest zone within 75' of the shore, approximately 2 acres will not be harvested.

As can be seen above, almost half of the basal area is red oak. Poplar is 21%, followed by beech (11%), hemlock (7%), and scattered white pine, sugar maple, red spruce, and white birch. The stand is basically even-aged, 60+ years old. Average tree diameter is 9" and ranges from 4-20". Basal area is 112 ft2/acre. Tree and site quality are generally good, except where soil is shallow to ledge. Potential growth under management is about 1/2 cord per acre per year.




As shown above, 55% of the sawtimber volume is red oak, followed by white pine (26%) and hemlock (19%). Forty-two percent of the pulpwood volume is oak, followed by poplar (27%), and a variety of other species. Stand volume is 1.2 MBF plus 24.6 cords per acre. Ground plants include: beaked hazelnut, starflower, ferns, and sarsaparilla. Sapling size striped maple, hemlock beech, fir, and pine grow as well. Part of the school nature trail passes through the stand.

Hardwood stands are preferred habitat for yellow-bellied sapsuckers, sharp-shinned hawk, goshawk, wild turkey, barred owl, downy and hairy woodpeckers, least flycatcher, and white-breasted nuthatch. Other species which prefer hardwood habitat include smoky shrew, flying squirrels, white footed mouse, red-backed vole, jumping mouse, porcupine, and both gray and red fox.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The long term goal is to maintain the aesthetic appearance of this stand while conducting periodic selection harvests to improve the value and growth of the remaining trees. The appearance of this stand is even more important than other areas because of its visibility from both the road and nature trail. A marked wood selection harvest should be conducted on the 9 harvestable acres, removing about one-third of the basal area. Approximate harvest volume would be 70 cords and 4 MBF. Because of the proximity to the school, this stand would be a likely place to continue the nature trail or expand other outdoor education programs. Beech trees are more common here than in any other stand. Healthy beech trees should be favored because of their wildlife value.

 

 

 

STAND 8 - SOFTWOOD SAWTIMBER 5 acres

This stand is located between the school and the Long Reach Road. It is accessed by skid trails leading towards the Road. Terrain is generally flat. Soils are well drained. The stand was partially cut when the biomass harvest was conducted in 1985.

As seen in the above chart, all of the tallied trees were white pine. The stand structure is two-aged, with an overstory of large pine trees and an understory of dense sapling pine, white birch, beech, striped maple, red maple, and hemlock. Average tree diameter is 18" and ranges from 16-24". Basal area is 70 ft2/acre. The stand is understocked, although site quality is good, as is potential growth (over 1 cord per acre per year), once the stand becomes adequately stocked. Quality of the overstory trees is fair. Standing volume is approximately 16.5 cords plus 4.2 MBF per acre. Ground plants include starflower, Canada mayflower, sarsaparilla, ferns, and Spirea.

Bird species which prefer white pine forests include long-eared owl, saw-whet owl, pileated woodpecker, red-breasted nuthatch, and solitary vireo. The red-bellied snake and black racer are found in this habitat type. Deer mice, white-footed mice, red fox, and red-backed vole also prefer white pine habitats.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The long term goal is to maintain the aesthetic appearance of this stand while conducting periodic selection harvests to improve the value and growth of the remaining trees. Because the stand is understocked, no harvesting is recommended for at least 15 years. The nature trail or other educational activities could be continued until that time. They should be temporarily discontinued during any harvesting. Following harvest completion, the trail and any other educational activities can be re-established. A simple sign, explaining the reasons for, and timing of, the recent harvest, would be of educational benefit..

 

STAND 9 - SOFTWOOD SAWTIMBER 4 acres

This stand is found in a narrow strip between Route 24 and the wetland. The section north of Long Cove Road slopes steeply towards the wetland and is, for all practical purposes, inaccessible to machinery. Terrain in the extreme southeast section is flatter, but most of the stand is within the 75' no-harvest zone of the resource protection area around the wetland. Soils are generally productive.

As seen in the above chart, red oak is the most common tree, followed by red spruce and white pine, with lesser amounts of hemlock and white ash. The stand is approaching being uneven-aged. Average tree diameter is 9". Basal area is 170 ft2/acre. Tree quality is generally good.




White pine and hemlock are the most common sawtimber trees, with red oak representing a smaller percentage. Red oak, however, is the most common pulpwood tree, followed by spruce (14%), pine (8%), hemlock, and white ash.

Songbird habitats provided in this red oak/white pine/red maple forest are preferred by blue jay, tufted titmouse, white-breasted nuthatch, woodpeckers, thrushes, ovenbird, common yellowthroat, towhee, and scarlet tanager. Other birds expected to utilize this habitat are sharp-shinned and Coopers hawks, wild turkey, and barred owl. The Eastern box turtle and red-bellied snake are also likely to be found in this habitat. Mammals with an affinity for this habitat include gray squirrel, flying squirrel, white-footed mouse, and gray fox.

 

RECOMMENDATIONS

The long term goal is to protect the edge of the wetland. No harvesting is necessary or recommended. This stand should be left as is. It provides a scenic forest view for passers-by on Route 24.

 

CONCLUSIONS

The property has excellent long-term potential as a demonstration forest for management for timber and income production and wildlife enhancement, while providing recreation opportunities and protecting the extensive shoreline.

 

SUMMARY OF MANAGEMENT PRIORITIES

1997-2007

Estimated

Year Stand Activity Income/(cost)

1997 All Survey unknown boundaries; ($??)

Blaze and paint all lines (approx. 1.8 miles) ($475)

1997-8 2 Conduct a marked wood selection harvest $ 6,500

1998-2001 1 Conduct a marked wood selection harvest $10,500

2001-2 4 Conduct a marked wood selection harvest $ 3,000

2002-3 7 Conduct a marked wood selection harvest $ 1,200

2003-4 3 Conduct a marked wood selection harvest $ 2,000

1997-2007 6 Cut hazard trees as necessary near parking lot ??

1997-2007 All Release apple trees, prune dead wood.

Fertilize & prune live wood 2-3 years later ($100?)

Work with school on nature trail and other

educational programs; establish info. signs

& "no hunting" signs in school safety zone ??

2007 All Update management plan

GLOSSARY

Basal Area (BA) - a) of a tree: the cross-sectional area of the trunk at 4.5 feet above the ground; b) per acre: the sum of the basal areas of all the trees on an acre; a measure of tree density of a forest stand

Board Foot - a unit for measuring wood volume in a tree, log, or cut lumber. It is the volume of wood in a board 1 foot by 1 foot by 1 inch, equaling 144 cubic inches.

Boltwood - smaller diameter and/or shorter length sawlog grade hardwoods, usually birch or red oak, manufactured into items such as furniture blanks, dowels, etc.

Commercial Harvest - a harvest operation that results in net landowner income

Cord - a measure of wood products 4 feet high , 4 feet wide and 8 feet long, equaling 128 cubic feet of wood, bark, and interior spaces

DBH - tree diameter at breast height, measured at 4.5 feet above the ground

Decadent - overmature trees that are deteriorating in wood quality

Even-aged - a stand of trees of the same age class

Habitat - the type of ecosystem in which a particular wildlife species or group of species is commonly found

Mature - condition of optimal tree value, after tree vigor and growth have slowed, yet before the onset of decay

MBF - log measurement unit; one thousand board feet; 1 MBF = approximately 2 cords

Operability - ease with which logging machinery could work a site; often limited by rockiness, steep slopes, or wetness

Patch Cut - a clearcut of a relatively small area (less than an acre)

Poles - trees between 6 and 9 inches DBH

Regeneration - seedlings or sprouts of commercial tree species

Saplings - trees between 1 and 5 inches DBH

Sawtimber - trees of DBH 10 inches or greater and containing log quality wood; generally 8 - 16 feet long and straight

Selection Harvest - the removal of individual or small groups of trees at regular intervals; designed to create or maintain an uneven-aged stand. Used as a management tool to ensure continuous establishment of regeneration of species that do not require full sunlight to grow well.

Stand - a contiguous, homogenous unit of forestland, delineated because it supports trees of common species, size, age, potential, etc.

Stocking - the current number and density of trees in a forest stand, compared to the optimum it could support

Timber Stand Improvement (TSI) - an activity which improves the value of a stand for producing quality wood products; pre- or non-commercial thinning, weeding, pruning and/or crop tree release

Type - a unit of forestland, which may be composed of one or more individual stands which are homogenous but geographically separate

Uneven-aged - a stand of trees of 3 or more age classes

 

 

APPENDIX - HABITAT VALUE MAPS

(The color maps of this section were included in copies of the Austin Cary Lot Management Plan available for public review at the Harpswell Public Library and Baxter Park Headquarters.