PERIOD OF THE INDIAN WARS, 1675-1760.
PERIOD OF THE INDIAN WARS, 1675-1760.
IN the earliest years of the Pejepscot settlement the whites were few in number, and although they oftentimes, doubtless, excited the jealousy and even the personal animosity of the natives, still, on the whole, they conducted themselves with sufficient caution to prevent any outbreak. For a few years previous to 1675 the ill-feeling and jealousy on the part of the Indians had been increasing and was particularly directed against Thomas Purchase, who was thought by them to have charged unfair prices, and otherwise to have overreached them in trade. The custom of the English at this time was, as is said by an early writer, " first to make them [the Indians], or suffer them to make themselves, drunk with liquors, and then to trade with them, when they may easily be cheated both in what they bring to trade, and in the liquor itself, being one half or more nothing but spring water, which made one of the Audroscoggin Indians once complain that he had given an hundred pound for water drawn out of Mr. P. his well." 1
KING PHILIP'S WAR. 1675-1678.
The animosity of the natives culminated in an outbreak in 1675. The war commenced in the Plymouth Colony, June 24, 1675. By September the fourth or fifth, hostilities commenced at Pejepscot. Ou that day, a party of about twenty Indians went to Purchase's house and pretended to his wife that they wished to trade. Discover-ing, however, that her husband and son were both absent, they gave up all further disguise, and proceeded to rob the ho'use. They took what weapons, powder, and liquor they could find, ripped up the feather-beds for the sake of the ticking, killed a calf and several sheep, and proceeded to make merry. Purchase's son returned home while this was going on. and being discovered by the party, was obliged to.
1. Drake, Hubbard's Indian Wars, p. 256.
flee for his life. He was followed for some distance by an Indian with a gun. but succeeded in making good his escape. The party offered no violence to any one in the house, but told them that " others would soon come and treat them worse." Some few days later, a party of twenty-five settlers, having collected for the purpose, went in a sloop and two boats to the New Meadows River, near to the house of Mr. Purchase, to gather and secure the growing crops, and also to recon-noitre. Here they found a number of Indians pillaging the neighbor-ing houses. In attempting to get between the Indians and the woods, they came upon three of their spies. One of these, attempting to reach the river, they shot. The second was wounded, but escaped across a stream to a canoe. The third escaped and gave the alarm. The Indians, however, remained concealed until the corn was all gath-ered and the boats loaded, when they suddenly gave their war-whoop, rushed upon them, wounded several, and carried off the boat-loads ot corn in triumph. 1 Some time the next year Purchase's house was burned and he was compelled to leave. 2
The war now having fairly opened, the settlers were all obliged to flee. and the Indians, emboldened by their success, " sought trophies for the tomahawk and scalping-knife in every direction, at the door of every plantation" throughout the Province of Maine.
The Androscoggin Indians were the most active of all the tribes, and it was thought, in 1767, that if a treaty could be effected with them there would be a general peace with the Eastern tribes. 3 This could not be accomplished this year, however, and so the General Court, in 1677, ordered Majors Waldron and Frost, with one hundred and fifty men, srxty of whom were Natick Indians, to the Kennebec. with instructions "to subdue the Indians in those parts, and deliver the English captives detained in their hands."
The force landed at Mair Point, Feb. 18. 1677. They were imme-diately hailed by an Indian party, among whom were Squando and Simon. " the Yankee-killer." After some preliminary questions, Waldron inquired of Simon whether they desired peace. The latter answered,
" Yes, and we sent Mugg to Boston for that purpose ; he told us you 'd be here." Upon being asked if they would release their English captives, Squando replied, " I will bring them in the afternoon." Nothing further was seen of them, however, until the
1. Williamson, History of Maine, 1, p.520 et seq.
2. Maine Historical Collection, 3, p.315
3. Drake, Book of Indians, 3, p.104
next day at noon, when fourteen canoes were seen up the hay, pulling for the shore, and soon a house was seen in flames, and the Indians appeared and challenged Waldron's soldiers to fight. Major Frost then attacked them and killed and wounded several. Another parley was then held. On being asked why they had not brought their captives, as they had agreed to do, and why they had fired the house and chal-lenged the soldiers, the Indians replied, through their interpreter, that "the captives were a great way off, and that the snow and cold weather had prevented their coming, that the house took fire by acci-dent, and that the soldiers fired at the Indians first." Major Waldron. finding himself unable to recover the captives or to fight the Indians with advantage, sailed for the Sagadahock. 1
This was the last engagement of this war that occurred in this vicinity, though peace was not declared until April 12, 1678. Al-though in the first three mouths alone of this war, eighty persons were slain between the Piscataqua and the Kennebec, it is not known that any of the settlers in the Pejepscot tract were killed.
KING WILLIAM'S WAR. 1688-1699.
The peace concluded with the Indians in 1678 lasted just ten years, when, from various causes, they became excited and again took the war-path. Governor Andros was at first inclined to adopt pacifica-tory measures, but at last, finding war inevitable, he took the opposite course, and in November, 1688, he made an expedition into the Eastern country, as it was then called, and established garrisons. At the time of his visit to Pejepscot, " the weather was exceedingly cold, the snow deep, and the travelling exceedingly tedious." While here he caused a fort to be erected under the charge of Anthony Brockhold, one of his counsel. 2 and garrisoned it with a part of his army. 3 This fort stood on what is now Maine Street, a few rods south of Bow Street, and about where the store of J. T. Adams & Co. is now.
The first attack in this vicinity was in the spring of 1690, when the fort was taken bv the savages. In September, Colonel Benjamin Church was sent from Massachusetts with between three hundred and four hundred men, to drive them off from Brunswick and other places in this region, and, if possible, recover their captives. He landed his force at Maquoit. Sept. 13, and marched them by night towards Fort Andros. They surrounded the fort, but at daybreak it was discov-ered that the enemy had left shortly before their arrival. The soldiers
1. Williamson, History of Maine, l, pp. 545, 546.
2. McKeen, MSS. Lecture.
3. Williamson, History of Maine, 1, p. 590.
found some plunder and a barn of corn. They left the same day for an Indian fort on the Androscoggin. After capturing the latter and releasing several prisoners, they returned to Maquoit, -went aboard their vessels, and sailed for "Winter Harbor." 1
Church had no conflict with the Indians at Brunswick as stated by Cotton Mather, the contest referred to having occurred at Cape Elizabeth. 2
In September, 1691, Captains King. Sherburne, March, and Walton landed, with their several companies of Massachusetts militia, at Maquoit and visited Fort Andros, expecting to find some Indians there. They found none, however, and accordingly returned imme-diately to Maquoit. "While re-embarking, they were assaulted by a strong force of Indians who had been watching them. In this skirmish Captain Sherburne, of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, was killed. 3
The war lasted some eight years longer, but there was no further skirmishes in this vicinity. Probably the settlers had all left. A conference between the commissioners from Massachusetts and the sagamores of the Penobscot, Kennebec, Androscoggin, and Saco tribes was held at Mair Point, and a previous treaty of peace, which had been made at Pemaquid. Aug. 11. 1693. was ratified between them on Jan. 7. 1699. This treaty quieted the fears of the settlers and encour-aged those who were engaged in the resettlement of Maine.
QUEEN ANNE'S WAR. 1703-1713.
Peace with the Indians lasted only about four years. In 1703 the third Indian war commenced. Although during this war engagements and skirmishes were quite frequent in the vicinity and to the westward of Falmouth, there is no evidence that there was any contest in this vicinity. The statement made by the late John McKeen, 4 that there was an attempt to undermine the fort here, in 1702. by a Frenchman named Bobazier and five hundred Indians, is an error. The fort referred to was at Casco, the present city of Portland. 5
In 1704 some companies from Massachusetts and New Hampshire went East, " Indian hunting," as it was termed, and one Peter Rogers, of Newbury, stated that he came to Pejepscot in a company of some twenty or thirty. That it was in the winter time, and that they trav-
1. Dexter, "Church's Expeditions against the Eastern Indians," pp. 50 to 56.
2. McKeen, Manuscript Lecture.
3. Williamson, History of Maine, 1, p. 628.
4. Pejepscot Papers. McKeen, MSS. Lecture.
5. Penhallow, p. 20. 6. Willis's History of Portland, p. 315.
elled with snow-shoes from there to Eocamoco, 1 or Jay Point, now Canton. No mention is made of his meeting with either settlers or savages.
LOVEWELL'S WAR. 1722-1725.
Although during Queen Anne's war there is not known to have been any conflict in this vicinity, yet the whole Province was in sncli a disturbed state on account of the Indian troubles that the Pejepscot proprietors, in 1715, felt it necessary to offer the following.Encouragement TO ENLIST.
" Wee the Subscribers Proprietors of the Lands in Brunswick & Topsham, do offer the following encouragements to such as shall Volun-tarily enlist themselves as Souldiers to garrison the Fort at Brunswick.
" 1. That immediately upon their enlistment, they shall enter into Pay & Subsistence.
" 2. That the Military Service expected from them at present is like to be so small as to permit them, besides their wages, to earn money by Labour.
" 3. That during the time of the Forts Repair, we will employ them all as Labourers, (except the Warders), & pay Two Shillings a day for every day they work.
"4. That afterwards we will endeavour to find employment for them, by splitting staves, shingles or clapboards or any other Service that may prove beneficiall to us & them.
"5. That when they have served six months as Souldiers if they desire to become Inhabitants, we will endeavour to obtain a General Order from His Excy the Governr to release them, they finding another man in their room. & when so dismist they shall have One hundred Acres of Land granted to each of them equall with the other Inhabi-tants & on the same Terms & conditions with them.
" If they don't see cause to settle there, when they have served twelve months, we will use our endeavour to obtain His Excy Favour to get them discharged, which we hope we shall be able to accomplish.
" Approved by theGovernour
& Signed by several of the
"BOSTON. Aug. 3d. 1715."
The proprietors, at a meeting held the thirtieth of the same month, voted to provide a free passage in a sloop to Brunswick and Topsham to the enlisted soldiers.
1. McKeen, Manuscript Lecture.
The fourth Indian, called the Three Years' or Lovewell's War. commenced in this vicinity. June 13, 1722, by a party of sixty Indians in twenty canoes appearing at Merrymeeting Bay, on the north side, perhaps near Pleasant Point or Fulton's Point. They captured nine entire families, but released all except five men. - Hamilton. Hauson. Trescott, Love, and Edgar. - whom they detained as hostages for the safe return of the four Indians in the hands of the English at Boston. 1
In June or July of this year, they made an attack upon the settle-ment at Brunswick, which they set fire to and entirely destroyed. Several citizens were also taken prisoners. Mr. David Dunning and another soldier were on the plains at the time, and when about where the First Parish Meeting-House now is, their attention was arrested by an unusual noise. They looked among the bushes and discovered a large number of Indians about the house of Thomas Tregoweth, and just moving away towards the fort. Mr. Dunning went to his home at Maquoit. but the soldier ran towards the fort, giving the alarm as he went. He was fired at. but escaped. Some of the citi-zens who were captured were cruelly murdered, and the houses were rifled and burned. In regard to the fate of Thomas Tregoweth nothing is definitely known. 2
After their work of destruction was accomplished the Indians re-paired to a dwelling on Fish-House Hill 3 for purposes of revelry. They were soon dislodged, however, put to flight, and the house par-tially destroyed by a chain-shot from the cannon in the fort. This fort was not Fort Andros. but a stone fort named Fort George, which was built in 1715 by the Pejepscot proprietors, and which stood quite near the site of the former. The Indians took their boats and went with their captives to Pleasant Point.
Captain Gyles sent Samuel Eaton, with a letter done up in his hair and covered with an eel-skin, to let Colonel John Harmon, who was stationed at Arrowsick. know of the attack, and that the Indians were on their way to Pleasant Point. 4 Harmon, discovering the village to be on fire, concluded that the Indians had made an attack upon it, and at once, before the message from the fort had reached him, manned two whale-boats, and, accompanied by Major Moody, proceeded with muffled oars up the river. It was night when he entered Merrymeeting Bay. Perceiving the fires of the Indians upon Pleasant Point, he carefully approached and noiselessly landed.
1. Williamson, History of Maine, 2, p. 114.
2. McKeen, MSS. Lecture.
3. on Water Street, near the present residence of Miss Narcissa Stone,
4. McKeen, Manuscript Lecture.
Ascending the banks, he found a large number of Indians lying before their fires, all sleeping very soundly, being much fatigued by the labors of the day and their subsequent revelry. His men imme-diately arranged themselves, fired into them, and killed sixteen or eighteen, and took some prisoners, though some, doubtless, escaped. A few of the Indians, who were some little distance off. alarmed hy the report of fire-arms, fired at them, but without doing any harm.
Harmon, on his return to his boats, found the body of Moses Eaton. of Salisbury, Mass.. whom the Indians had first tortured by depriv-ing him of liis tongue and cutting off his arms and legs, and had then killed. As no one of the party was shot at the time of the attack, Eaton must have been taken captive while separated from his comrades. His body was buried near the spot. 1
An account of this affair has been preserved in doggerel rhyme Harmon is represented on the bank of the river, watching the Indians sleeping before their fires. It is introduced here as a specimen of the literature of the times : -
" Oh. the sweet and pleasant morning
While we around them stood.
But oh 1 the dreadful and grievous groaning,
Englishmen lying in their blood.
' Come,' said valiant Colonel Harmon,
'This, their neglect, is our gain;
Therefore let us fall upon them, -
Our cause is good we will maintain.'
Then on them we fired two volleys,
And, with haste, we made away.
For fear the Indians would surround us,
And we should not get away.
Some did say that we did kill thirty,
Others say that we did kill more ;
The number to us is uncertain,
I believe we hardly killed a score." 2
This attack upon the settlement at Brunswick is supposed to have been specially in retaliation for that upon Norridgewock, the preced-ing year, by Colonel Westbrook. 3
Early in August, 1724, "Captains Harmon. Moulton, Brown, and Bean were now preparing for Norridgewock. with two hundred men
1. Williamson, History of Maine, 2, p 116. According to McKeen (Pejepscot Papers), Moses Eaton was son of Samuel Eaton, of Brunswick, who then lived about where the Bowdoin Hotel is now.
2. Pejepscot Papers.
3. Maine Historical Collections, 3. p. 311.
in seventeen whale-boats. After they landed at Triconnick, they met with Bomazeen at Brunswick (who had slain an Englishman some days before), whom they shot in the river, as he attempted to make an escape. They afterwards killed his daughter, and took his wife cap-tive : who gave an account of the state of the enemy, which encour-aged them to march on 1 briskly."
No farther fighting is known to have occurred in this vicinity until 1725. On April l3th of that year two Indians captured a man belonging to the garrison at Maquoit, named James Cochran. about eighteen years of age. He was on the marshes in pursuit of fowl when he was surprised by the two Indians. He was pinioned, taken to the carrying-place, put in a canoe, and carried up to the Ten-Mile Falls. There the Indians made their arrangements lor the night. A fire was made and supper prepared. Cochran expected all this time that he would be killed when the savages met some of their companions, and determined, in consequence, to make his escape, if possible. The sec-ond night his bonds were removed, and he was placed between the two Indians to sleep. Each of the savages slept with his hatchet under his head and his gun by his side. Cochran feigned sleep, while in reality he watched every movement. As soon as he found his captors asleep he rose up. This movement awakened one of them, who, seeing their prisoner apparently suffering from cold and endeavor-ing to warm himself, went to sleep again. When all was again quiet. Cochran took the hatchet from under the head of the one who had waked, and killed him instantly. He killed the other as he was get-ting up. He then scalped them both, took their guns and hatchets, and went down the river in great haste, fearing lest he should meet their companions. In fording a river on the way. he lost a gun and one of the scalps. When he arrived opposite the fort, he shouted, and a boat was sent across for him. He narrated his adventure to Cap-tain Gyles, and some men were sent up the river, who found the bodies of the dead Indians, and also their canoe which they brought back.2 He was both rewarded for his bravery and promoted in his rank.
At this time, Captain John Gyles was in command of the fort, which was crowded with the inhabitants who had gone to it for safety. This war was closed by the ratification of a treaty between the Indians and commissioners on behalf of the government. August 6, 1726.
1. i. e., to Norridgewock, Penhallow's Indian Wars, p. 102. Query: Bomazeen Island is east of Gurnet Bridge. May not Bomazeen hare been killed there and the name applied to the island in consequence ? - EDS.
2. McKeen, MSS. Lecture. Penhallow's Indian Wars, p. 109.
SPANISH OR FIFTH INDIAN WAR, 1745-1749.
The fifth war with the Indians grew out of the war between Great Britain, France, and Spain, which commenced about 1739, although the formal declaration of it was not made until June, 1744. In anti-cipation of this war. and in expectation that the Indians would take part in it. the forts along the coast were put in order and garrisoned.
In 1740 the commanding officer of Fort George was furnished with a quantity of goods, of suitable kinds, sufficient to supply the Indians who commonly resorted there. This was done to attach them to the interests of the government. 1 So much reliance was placed upon this method of dealing with the Indians, that in 1742 the government refused to strengthen it at all, 2 and in 1743 only six men were sent to this fort. In 1744 block houses were built in Brunswick and Topsham. " all of massive timber," and a regiment, consisting of 1,290 men. was organized and placed under the command of Colonel Sam-uel Waldo, of Falmouth. The proportion of Brunswick and Topsham men in this regiment was fifty. Another regiment was also organized, from the towns west of Falmouth, under the command of Colonel William Pepperell, of Kittery. These soldiers were all. however, dis-charged December 2d, except one hundred men from the latter regi-ment, who were formed into eight guards and stationed between Berwick and St. George. Fourteen men scouted from New Marblehead to Brunswick, and ten from Topsham to Richmond fort. There was a block house with a company of soldiers at Maquoit, under command of Captain William Woodside. There -were also storehouses and other buildings there. 3
In 1743 a call was made for men to serve in the expedition to Louisburg. This expedition was very popular in this vicinity, and many persons enlisted, including some of the principal and most promising young men in each of the towns. From twenty-five to thirty men went from Brunswick, as many more from Harpswell, and a number from Topsham. It is said that in Brunswick a day of fast-ing and prayer was held before any soldiers enlisted, so unwilling were the people to allow their own capability of defence against the Indians to be weakened. The Harpswell forces were commanded by Richard Jaques. the same who shot Sebastian Rale at Norridgewock.
Daring the continuance of the Louisburg campaign, the settlers were continually alarmed for their own safety, and were calling upon the government to send a military force hither from the West. The
1. Massachusetts Records, 1710, p. 481.
2. Ibid., 1742, p. 416.
glad tidings that Louisburg was reduced was received with great joy, and the return of the volunteers, who nearly all came back, was hailed with the utmost enthusiasm. 1
The first outbreak of the Indians in this war occurred at Saint George and Damariscotta, July 19, 1745. 2
July 30 of this year, a man and a boy. at Topsham, were surprised by the Indians, who knocked them down and beat them with clubs. The man was killed and the boy was scalped and left for dead. 3 About this same time, a mounted man and his horse were shot at New Meadows. 4
This was not. however, the first blood shed in this vicinity, as three years previously Alexander McFarland was killed by the Indians while crossing the Androscoggin River. This was, however, an iso-lated case and may have been due to personal animosity. About the time of the Topsham and New Meadows massacres, Captain Mochus was scouting5 with his company between Brunswick and Falmouth, and Captain John Gatchell was scouting north of Brunswick. The following is a copy of the Journal of the latter : -
"1747/8 JOURNAL OF A MARCH UP THE KENNEBECK RIVER BY CAPT. JOHN
MARCH GATCHELL OF BRUNSWICK
" 7 Mett this day at Brunswick took allowance of Provision & ammunition but no Rum marcht 6 mile & lodged at Topsham.
" 8 Marcht across Merrymeeting Bay 8 Mile & then up Kennebeck River 4 mile to Richmond Fort & bought some Rum to carry with us then lay down & slept.
" 9 Took Mr Call to pilott us to a pond Marcht N.N.West abt 12 Mile & came to a pond about 4 mile long hardly a mile wide the Pond lavs N. E. & S. W. a River came & went out both at one end of ye pond, went up the River that came into ye pond a mile & campt, sent out 2 men about & mile round then sett out our Sentrys & lay clown & slept.
" 10 Marcht up said River 3 mile abt N. W., went one mile N. E. then one mile N by E & came to a small pond about a mile & half long & half a mile wide-Went still by ye River 2 mile N W. then went N. 2 mile & came to a pair of Falls that had an Indian Ware made wh stones to catch fish - went up the River 6 mile about N &
1. Pejepscot Papers, McKeen, MSS. Lecture.
2. Williamson, History of Maine, 2, pp. 215 to 230.
3. Drake, French and Indian Wars, p. 80. If this lad was Thomas Thorn, he after-wards recovered. - EDS.
4. Smith's Journal, p. 40. 5. Massachusetts Records, 1745, p. 40.
came to a large Pond, went 2 mile on the Pond & campt on an Island Sent out 3 men 2 mile round, sett out our Sentrys & then lay down & slept. 1
"11 Marcht across ye pond 3 mile N. by E. this pond is about 10 or 12 mile long & about 2 or 3 mile wide & has near 20 Islands in it - it lays N. E. & S.W . Went four mile N. by E. & came to a pond about 3 mile long & half a mile wide & trackt some Moose Went N 2 mile & came to a meadow. Went 4 mile N & came to a long meadow then marcht about 4 mile N by W & campt Sent out 2 men that went 2 mile round, sett out our Sentrys then lay Down & slept.
" 12 Went up a high hill & sent a man up a tree that he see a pond about five mile off, it bore from us E. N. E. went 3 mile N & came to a pond & a Small Elver that run N. E. We went N E 2 mile on said River & came to a large pond, it appeared to be 4 mile to ye South End of ye pond, we went N. up ye pond 6 mile & came to a narrow place & a small Island in ye narrows N.NE up to ye head of the pond abt 5 mile then went into ye woods N. a mile & campt, sent out 3 men about 2 mile round then lay down & slept- it snowed -
"13 Rise This Morning, it being Sabbath day & the Trees very full of Snow we Marcht none only sent some men out on Discovery, they went about 4 mile to a high mountain & went up & see a pond that appeared to be very large it lay east from our Camp, & they see another pond ye lay North from ye large pond, it appeared to be about 4 or 5 mile long they returned to ye Camp and at night we sett out our Sentry, then lay down & slept
" 14 Marcht this morning abt 2 mile & came to that large pond that we see a Sabbath day. this pond appeared to be about 15 mile long & about 4 mile wide & lay N° & S°, it has about 28 Islands in it went about 12 mile South down ye pond then went into the woods
S. W. & came to a Small River that vented out of that long pond that we went up on Saturday. Went down ye small River about three mile South & came to a pair of Falls that had 3 Indian Wares made wh stones went still down ye River it run to ye eastward 4 mile & campt, sett out our Sentrys lay down & slept.
" 15 AYent down ye River 5 mile & crost ye River on ye Ice the River run Easterly went down the River 6 mile & came to another large pond 2 abt 10 mile long & 2 mile wide it lay N. E. & S Wt, we crost ye pond at ye S W end then Marcht SW 8 mile & came to Ken-
1. These ponds appear to be the Winthrop chain.
2. Snow's Pond in Sidney.
nebeck River, went clown ye River a mile & Campt sett out our Sentrys, and lay down & slept. 1
" 16 It snowed but we went down the River in ye Storm 8 mile & came to where ye Tide flows,2 went still down ye River 20 mile & came to Richmond Fort lay Down & slept.
"17 Mardit down said iver to Merrymeeting Bay & some of the Men gott home.
" 18 this day the Remainder of onr Men gott home.
"JONATHAN PHILBROOK. Clerk." 3
April 23. 1747, Smith writes in his journal, "A scout of men are now out from North. Yarmouth, another going out from Purpooduc. \Ve are in the most distressed circumstances, Swarms of Indians being about the Frontier, and no soldiers save Captain Jordan's com-pany of fifty men, thirty of whom have been for some time at Topsham guarding the government timber."
May 5. of this year, the Indians shot Mr. Seth Hinkley, near the garrison of Joseph Smith and Tobias Ham, at New Meadows. They were tanners, and Hinkley had been there to get a strap for a cow-bell.4 The following letter, from Isaac Hinkley, gives a rather more detailed account: - 5
" BRUNSWICK, May ye 6. 1747.
" LOVEING- BROTHER AND SISTER.
" I hope that these few lines will find you in good health as we that are alive through the tender mercys of God.
"God has taken away by his providence our brother Seth by the Indians May ye 5 day, thay kiled him about 8 o'clock in the four-noon and scalped him and stript of all his cloes save only his briches and stockens. thay carid away his gon. thare was three men gest back behind a hill in a swamp near a gainst him when he was kiled and thay heard the gons when the Indians fiard at him and one of them said thay have shot sombody and presently after heard a Larrn at Smiths and then thay ran out to Smiths and when thay came thare thay said that Seth was kiled and thay went whare thay heard the gons and found him Liing in the path thav shot about 33 fete at him. The night before the Indians ambush Mr. Ham. 11 of us went to see if we culd find them but we culd not find them, one our and ahalf after thay ware sen to go over merremetiug bay into Cathance river.
1. Below Waterville.
3. Pejepscot Papers.
4.McKeen, MSS. Lecture.
5. Copied from the original in possession of H. W. Bryant, Esq., Portland.
" The Lord has maid a breach upon us and by taking away our brother from us the Lord has be reved father and mother of thare son and us of our brother, yeat thaey and we must say with Job the Lord gaive and the Lord hath taken away Blessed be the name of the Lord.
" Sister reliance is brought abaed and has lost hur child but she is like to do weal but she has bin near to the gates of death but through the tender mearcies of God she is like to do well.
" So I remain your loving brother
" ISAAC HINKLEY.
"'To MR.. SAMUEL Scammon Saco." 1
Four days subsequently the Indians fired upon a canoe, containing four persons, as it was coming up through the narrows below Cow Island. The boat contained Mr. and Mrs. Moffitt. William Potter, and William Thorn, a soldier in Topsham, under Captain William Burns. Moffitt and Potter were killed. Thorn had his arm shot off. Mrs. Moffift succeeded, with some assistance from Thorn, in paddling the canoe to the Brunswick side of the river, and thus enabled them both to escape. 2 Thorn asked for aid from the General Court, and on May 31. 1748. twelve pounds were allowed him.
August 19th a man was wounded somewhere in Brunswick, and a boy taken prisoner. In the early part of September four men were killed and scalped in a corn-field, in Topsham, only about twenty rods from the garrison, by twelve Indians. Probably one of these was Richard Grain, said to have been killed August 27th. One of the men had seven bullets shot through his body 3 In the same magazine from which the above extracts were taken occurs the following account: -
"BOSTON. NOV. 16.
" We are informed by Capt Woodside. that on the fifth Instant towards Evening, a Lad about 16 Years old, going out of Brunswick Fort at the Eastward, saw eleven Men dressed with Coats and Hats coming towards him. which he took for Englishmen, till they came up to him, when he found them to be Indians, one of which seized him as his Prisoner, which the Lads Father observing from the Fort, dis-charged his Gun ( loaded with Swan-Shot) at the Indian and wounded him. upon which he immediately quitted the Lad. who ran towards the Fort, but was unfortunately shot down by the other Indians. The
1. Scammon married Mehitable Hinkley.
2. Williamson, Smith, McKeen, et als. Massachusetts Records, Vol. 73, pp. 163, 164.
3. Historical Magazine, Vols. 9 and 10. Extracts from New York Gazette, dated Sept. 14, 1747.
People of the Garrison got the Lad into the Fort alive, but he died of his Wounds soon after: He said the Indian that took him was mor-tally wounded by his Father's Shot, one of which struck him (the Boy) in the Ball of his Hand."
In 1748 the Indians made their appearance rather earlier than usual, - on the last of April. A company of soldiers kept open communi-cation between Fort George and Maquoit. They were, however, fre-quently annoyed by the Indians, who lay in ambush. On their first appearance this spring, a number of them hid in the bushes on the west side of Mair Brook and fired upon Captain Burns as he was cross-ing the brook with a file of men. They killed him and a Mr. Bragg, and captured a Mr. Werburn, whom they took to Canada. A day or two afterwards a boy of Doctor Spear's was watering a horse at a well near the house, when he was fired at, and he and the horse were both killed. 1
May 3d of this same year. Captain Burnell and one other were killed at Brunswick, and on another occasion Lieutenant Mackburn was killed at the place called " Spawell." 2
Although during the winter of 1748 there were some prospects of a peace, and the Indians were comparatively quiet, yet troops were kept in service for the defence of the Eastern inhabitants, and twelve men were left to garrison Fort George. A treaty of peace was concluded October 16, 1749.
Although the war was now declared at an end, yet the Indians had been too much excited to remain perfectly quiet, and fresh outbreaks and massacres occasionally occurred.
Early in the year 1750 a woman on the old " Skipper Malcom " place in Topsham had died. She was to have been buried one after-noon in March, and a new grave was dug. At the time appointed the house was filled with neighbors. The burial services had closed, and the procession formed for the march to the grave, when a snow-squall came up and prevented the burial, which was deferred until the next day. The storm was the severest that had been known for many vears. and lasted four days. No interment could take place until the fifth day. Some three years afterwards it was ascertained that a large party of Indians, who had been making an unsuccessful foray upon the settlements around Yarmouth, were making their way north. toward the Chaudiere River, when they learned, from a prisoner whom they had captured at Flying Point, that a funeral was to take place on
1. Smith's Journal, p. 133.
2. Spawell was near Mair Brook, Pejepscot Papers.
the afternoon of the next day, at the graveyard near the upper part of Merrymeeting Bay. They resolved to ambush the procession and massacre the whole settlement at one blow. They waited for the fu-neral procession the whole afternoon and the first night. The storm saved the settlers, but nearly destroyed the Indians, who suffered severely. 1
In July, 1751. the Indians came upon a party of seven settlers who were getting in their hay at New Meadows. These men were at work on the side of the hill north of the railroad at Harding's Station, on the farm now occupied by Mr. Chapin Weston. The Indians, discovering that the party were some way from their guns, ran and cut off their retreat. This party of farmers consisted of Edmund, Isaac, and Gideon Hinkley ; Deacon Samuel Whitney and his son Samuel, who was only a boy; Hezekiah Purington and Samuel Lumbers. Isaac Hinkley was killed while attempting to escape. He fell in the gully at the lower part of the field, south of the railroad track, and his body was not found until the next spring. The rest were all taken prisoners and carried to Canada, where they suffered many hard-ships.
They were afterwards exchanged and returned home. The govern-ment provided for their families during their captivity.2
The following memorial to the General Court, of one of the captives, will be read with interest in this connection : -
"To THE Honble SPENCER PHIPS. ESQ Lr. Govr & COMMANDER IN CHIEF
FOR THE TIME BEING. THE
HONBLE His MAJESTYS Councill & HOUSE
of REPRESENTATIVES IN GENERAL COURT DECEMBER 4,
THE Memorial OF SAMUEL WHITNEY OF BRUNSWICK
"That your Memorialist & his Son Samuel, with five more of the Inhabitants. While at work together mowing their Hay, on Wednes-day ye 24 day of July last about two o'clock in the afternoon were sur-rounded & surprised by nineteen Indians & one Frenchman, who were all armed, & in an hostile manner did seize upon & by Force of Arms, obliged them to submitt their Lives into their hands, and one of our said number, viz. Isaac Hinckley in attempting to make his escape was killed in a barbarous Manner & Scalped. After we were secured
1. The foregoing tradition is from the diary of the late James McKeen, M.D., of Topsham.
2. Pejepscot Papers.
by said Indians, they destroyed and wounded between 20 & 30 head of Cattle belonging to ye Inhabitants, some of which were the prop-erty of your Memorialist. The said party of Indians were nine of them of Norridgewalk Tribe, one of whom was well known, the other were Canada Indians. That the Norridgewalk Indians appeared more for-ward for killing all the Captives but were prevented by the other Indians.
" Your memorialist was by them Carried to Canada & there sold for 126 Livres - And the said Indians when they came to Canada were new cloathed & had New Guns given them with plenty of Provisions as an encouragement for this exploit. That the Govr of the Penobscot Tribe was present when your memorialist was sent for to sing a Chorus, as is their custom of using their captives. & manifested equal Joy wt the other Indians, that took them. And the Norridgewalk Tribe had removed from Norridgewalk & were now sett down on Canada River near Quebec, supposed to be drawn there by the Influence of the French. These things your memorialist cannott omitt observing to yr Honours, and his Redemption was purchased by one Mr. Peter Littlefleld formerly taken a captive & now resident among them, to whom your memorialist stands indebted for said 126 Livres being the price of his Liberty, which when he had so far obtained, he applied to ye Governr of Canada for a Pass, who readily granted it, that his Return to Boston was by way of Louisbourgh, when said Pass was taken from him by the lord Intcndant. on some Pretence which he conld not obtain of him again.
" Your memorialists son yet remaining in Captivity among the In-dians with three more that were taken at ye same time, and he has a wife and 8 children under difficult circumstances by reason of this mis-fortune.
"Your memorialist having thus represented his unhappy sufferings to this Honble Court humbly recommends his Case to the Compassion of this Honble Court hoping they will in their great Goodness provide for ye Redemption of his Son & enable him to answer his obligation to said Mr. Littlefield, who was so kind to pay for his Ransom. Your memorialist being in no Capacity to answer that Charge as thereby he is reduced to great poverty otherwise grant him that Relief as in their Wisdom & Goodness shall seem best -
" Your memorialist as in duty bound shall ever pray &c
"Samuel Whitney. "
On the back of this paper is the following indorsement :------
"1751. CAPTIVES TAKEN.
« Hez. Pnrington } returned.
Sam'll Whitney }
Samuel Whituey Junr returned.
Isaac Hinkley killed.
''July 24th 1751." 1
There is a tradition that the friends of young Hinkley, supposing that he was carried off by the Indians, did not search for him. Early in the spring of the following year, it was noticed that a dog, which had belonged to Hinkley, went every day to the gully where he fell. The dog was followed and the remains were thus discovered, but they had been so long exposed to the weather and to the ravages of wild beasts that they were in such a condition as to be unrecognizable by dress or features, and it was only by a peculiar string found in one of the shoes that the remains were identified.
FRENCH, OR SIXTH INDIAN WAR. 1754-1760.
"When the last of the series of Indian wars commenced, in 1754, the government of Massachusetts deemed it unnecessary to retain Fort George any longer, but voted the sum of £470 towards building a fort at the Ten-Mile Falls instead, and for other military purposes. 2 This action, so far as the fort was concerned, was premature.
Early this year, Adam Hunter, of Topsham, received a commission as captain, with authority to raise an independent company. The following is a copy of the commission : -
" PR0VINCE OF THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY.
" WILLIAM SHIRLEY Esq., CAPTAIN-GENERAL AND GOVERNOR-IN-CHIEF [L. s.] in & OVER HIS MAJESTY'S PROVINCE OF YE MASSACHUSETTS BAY
in New England &c.
" To ADAM HUNTER. GENTLEMAN, Greeting:
" By virtue of ye power & authority, in & by his Majesty's Royal Commission to me granted to be Captain General, &c.. over this his Majesty's Province of ye Massachusetts Bay aforesaid ; I do (by these
1. Pejepscot Papers.
2. Massachusetts Records, 1751, p. 315.
presents) reposing especial trust and confidence in your loyalty, cour-age, and good conduct, constitute & appoint you to be a Captain of an Independent company of fifteen volunteers forthwith to be raised in ye town of Topsham & parts adjacent in ye County of York ; for marching upon any sudden alarm to ye relief & protection of any neighbouring English Fort or settlement (mentioned in ye instructions herewith s[ent]) which shall be attacked or molested by Indians ; & for cutting off their retreat.
" You are therefore carefully & diligently to discharge ye duty of a captain in leading, ordering & exercising said Company in Arms, both inferiour officers and soldiers, & to keep them in good order & discipline ; hereby commanding them to obey you as their captain - & yourself to observe & follow such orders & instructions, as you shall from time to time receive from me, or ye commander in chief for ye time being, or other your superiour officers for his Majesty's service, according to military rules & discipline, pursuant to ye trust reposed in you.
" Given under my hand & seal at arms at Boston, the fourth day of March, in ye twenty seventh year of ye Reign of his Majesty King George ye Second. Anuoq: Domini. 1754-"
[Signed] W. SHIRLEY.
By His Excellency's
[Signed] J. WILLARD Secr'y.1
Hostilities commenced in this vicinity, May 9, 1756. On that day a party of Indians assembled on the high lands of Topsham, con-certed their plans, and agreed to meet there on their return. They divided into two parties. One party was to go to Flying Point, and the other to Maquoit, Middle Bay, and New Meadows. The second party skulked about Maquoit for a while and then went to Middle Bay, where they looked into the house of John Giveen, who, with his wife, had gone to meeting at Harpswell. In the afternoon, while the Indians lay concealed in the bushes at Smith's Brook, three men - Abijah Young, and John and Richard Starbird, who were on their return from meeting at New Meadows - passed by. These men belonged, probably, to Captain Samuel Goodwill's company, which scouted between Fort George and Maquoit 2 They were well armed. The Indians darted from their concealment and fired at them. In
1. Copied from the original, Sept. 23, 1833, by Lithgow Hunter, of Topsham.
2. Pejepscot Papers.
their surprise and fright, the men dropped their guns and ran. Young was wounded and carried off a prisoner.
The other party of Indians appeared Sunday, at daylight, at the house of Thomas Means, at Flying Point, in what is now Freeport. This was a fortified house and the doors were securely fastened. The Indians, however, battered it open by means of a log and thus effected an entrance. Thomas Martin, the father of Captain Matthew, was asleep in his chamber, and being so suddenly aroused was unable to find his gun, and consequently remained in concealment. One of the children concealed herself in the ash-hole. This daughter. Alice, after-wards married Mr. Clement Skofield, eldest son of Thomas, and was the mother of Captain George Skolfield. Mr. Means, his wife, child, and wife's sister, Miss Molly Finuey, were taken out of the house. Mr. Means was held by the arms between two stalwart In-dians, while a third one shot him through the breast and scalped him. While this was being done, Mrs. Means, with a child in her arms, ran into the house, closed the door, and placed a chest against it. The Indians, on their return to the house, finding the door refastened, pointed a gun through a hole and fired at her. The ball passed through her breast, killing the infant in her arms. They succeeded in getting into the house again, and while they were in the entry, Mar-tin, who had found his gun, fired down through his chamber-floor and wounded one of them. This frightened them off and they left the place, taking with them the wounded Indian and Miss Finney, who was heard crying loudly for rescue. She was carried off in her night-clothes. When they got to the hill in Topsham they were met by the second party, who had Young a prisoner. The latter advised Miss Fiuney to seize the first blanket she could. She succeeded in getting and retaining one. The subsequent adventures of this lady, though interesting, are not so exciting as what has been related.
The Indians took their prisoners through the wilderness to Quebec. Here Miss Finuey was sold to a farmer and put to work in the field. The farmer, not satisfied with her work there, afterwards put her in his kitchen. While here, she attracted the attentions of a French-man. Her master, in consequence, being displeased, used to lock her in her chamber when she was not at work. Not many months after this, Captain McClellan, of Falmouth, was at Quebec with a cartel of exchange. Having been formerly acquainted with Miss Finney, he sought after and finally found her. A time and mode of escape were agreed upon. At- the time fixed he went to her window and threw her a rope. She let herself down, escaped to his vessel, and after a
fair voyage arrived at Portland. She afterwards married the man who had been so instrumental to her release.1 Young obtained Ms liberty in about a year, but died in Halifax of the small-pox. 2
In 1756 a garrison was built in Topsham and the defence of it was given to Captain Lithgow. 3 On May 18. 1757. a party of seventeen Indians waylaid Captain Lithgow and a party of eight men. at Topsham, and had a short but sharp engagement with them. Two of Litligow's party were wounded and two of the Indians were killed. 4 Disheartened at the result, the savages withdrew, taking with them the dead bodies of their companions. They afterwards, however, as they went up the river, took their revenge by killing two white men. 5
Shortly after this event John Malcom and Daniel Eaton were going to Maqnoit for salt hay. or were returning with some, when they were waylaid by some Indians. Malcom escaped, but Eaton received a bullet in his wrist, was captured, and was carried to Canada, where he remained about a year. He was the son of Moses Eaton who was killed at Pleasant Point in 1722. 6 According; to another account, he was the son of Samuel Eaton, of Salisbury, Mass. 7 Eaton was cap-tured by the famous Indian chief, Sabattis, who sold him for four dollars. The only food they had to eat, on their way to Canada, was a par-tridge which Sabattis shot, and of which he gave Eaton all the better part, reserving for himself only the head and entrails, which he ate with apparent relish. Years after (about 1800). Sabattis passed through Brunswick, and while there entered the store of John Perry, which was on the site of the store now occupied by Barton Jordan. Quite a crowd of villagers collected to see the old chief, and Dean Swift, then a lad of eight years, was sent to inform Daniel Eaton, who was then an old man, that Sabattis was in the store. Eaton, who was at work piling shingles for Colonel William Stanwoocl in what is now the yard of the estate of the late A. C. Robbins, Esquire, came to the store, and was at once recognized by Sabattis, who seemed to be really glad to see him. At the request of some of those in the store, Eaton drew up his sleeve to show the buckshot in his arm, which were fired by Sabattis at the time of Eaton's capture. Sabattis looked at the arm with reluctance, saving, " That long time ago ; war time too."
1. McKeen, MSS. Lecture. Massachusetts Historical Collections, 4 Ser. Vol. 5. p. 415.
2. Willlamson, History of Maine, 2, p. 320
3. Seieall, Ancient Dominions of Maine, p 306.
4. Williamson, History of Maine, 2, p. 325.
5. Sewall, Ancient Dominions of Maine, p. 208
6. McKeen, MSS. Lecture.
7. McKeen, MSS Lecture
After a short but friendly chat with Eaton. Sabattis shook hands and left the store and went on his way.
Although a treaty of peace, was not made until the spring of 1700, yet the war had virtually ceased at this time, and accordingly the fort was dismantled, and on Dee. 19, 1758, was leased by the proprietors, to whom it had reverted.
These Indian wars occupied a period of nearly eighty-five years, and during nearly all this time the settlers were accustomed, at every alarm, to congregate in the fort at Brunswick or the block house at Maquoit. though towards the close manv were in garrisons in other parts of the town and in Topsham. At times these defences were so crowded that temporary booths and camps were made outside of, but near to them. There were but few garrisons in Harpswell, as from its local situation it was not subject to assaults by the Indians. 2
There were a few other cases of massacres and violence on the part of the Indians, besides those which have been related, but accounts of them are, for the most part, entirely traditional and indefinite, both as to dates and localities, and often as to the individuals concerned in them.
An account of the manners and customs of life at this period belongs to another chapter, but one tradition is here given to show the expedients to which those in the fort, during the raids of the Indians, were often obliged to resort. It is said that at one time, when the inhabitants were obliged to seek refuge in Fort George, they had no neighbors nearer than at Bath, then called "The Reach." This place was distant fifteen miles by water, which was the only safe way of communicating between the two posts. In Fort George was a dog which had been taught to carry letters and which would take one to Bath in about two hours' time. On arriving there he would howl until he gained admission to the fort at that place, and would receive an answer, which he would as speedily fetch back to Brunswick. At last he was killed by an Indian. The garrisons were now deprived of this means of communication. An active and zealous youth undertook, however, to take the place of the four-footed messenger. " I," said he, " will carry your messages by water." For two successive sum-mers this brave youth went between the two posts, swimming a great part of the way. He went chiefly in the night-time, resting by day in the rushes that grew around the shores of Merrymeeting Bay. At
1. Reminiscences of Dean Swift.
2. Memoranda- of Rev. Samuel Eaton, in Pejepscot Papers.
length he was captured by the Indians and carried to Canada. From the latter country he soon, however, made his escape, and returned to Fort George, where he soon "resumed his swimming mail route." He was afterwards captured a second time by the famous Indian chief, Sabattis. What farther became of him is unknown. 1
1. Putnam, Description- of Brunswick, Me., by a gentleman from South Carolina, p. 32.