CHAPTER 23.
FORTS, GARRISONS, CHURCHES, AND OTHER BUILDINGS IN BRUNSWICK.


FORTS.


FORT ANDROSS. -The first fort ever erected upon the banks of the Androscoggin, by Englishmen, was undoubtedly that built by Governor Andross in 1688, which has since been called by his name. After King Philip's war, Andross, desirous of promoting the eastern settlements, came to Pejepscot in midwinter, with an army of 1,000 men, and on the now vacant lot adjoining the present store of J. T. Adams & Co., a few rods south of Bow Street, he erected a stone fort.1 It was large and in form very zigzag. In 1689 it was under the command of Lieutenant Colonel McGregory and Major Thomas Savage. It was demolished about 1694.2

FORT GEORGE. -From about 1694 to 1715 the fort previously mentioned lay dismantled and entirely unfit for purposes of protection to the settlers. Accordingly, on July 28, 1715, the following proposal was presented to the House of Representatives by the subscribers:-

"Wee the subscribers Proprietors of the Lands in Brunswick and Topsham, &c. being desirous to make such a settlement as may be able to sustain a war with the Indians, Do acknowledge the Favour of the General Court in their readiness to encourage and protect the intended settlements and particularly in the Repair of the Fort there; Yet perceiving the House inclinable to a Wooden Fort on account of the cheapness of it: We being sensible that as this Fort is set so, as to be a Bridle to the Indians; So if a War should arise, it may be expected, they will leave no means untryed to become Masters of it; towards which the Remoteness from Succour will give them great advantage; and considering how much the Lives and Estates there will depend upon the strength and security of that Fort: We have been induced to make the following Proposall.

"That whereas the Wooden Fort at Winter Harbour cost, as we are informed Four hundred Pounds, when Provisions and Labour were


1. Pejepscot Papers.
2. Massachusetts Historical Collection, 3d Series, p. 85.


much cheaper, than at this time; we can't suppose such an one now would cost much less than five hundred Pounds; and a Stone Fort supposed to be much more chargable: yet rather than the sd Fort should be of Wood, and so liable to be consumed by Fire, in case it should be assaulted by French as well as Indians.

"Wee offer, That if the Generall Court will please to allow Five Hundred Pounds, and let us now have the Fifteen men, which are designed for that Garrison, we will enter into Engagements to repair and finish the aforesaid Stone Fort: To be Fifty Foot Square, as proposed, with Four Bastions, Two of which of wood on the Top of the Angle, at our own charge, although it should amount to more than that sum. And we shall set about it in a weeks time, if possible, and hope to finish it before winter, if not obstructed by the Indians. We desire to have Three hundred Pounds of the said sum, as occasion shall require, to provide Materialls &c. and the remainder when the work is finished.


"Signed

"THOMAS HUTCHINSON.

ADAM WINTHROP.

OLIVER NOYES.

       In behalf of themselves & partners.



"MEMORANDUM. It is agreed that the foundation of the said Fort shall be Three Foot under Ground. That the Wall shall be Three Foot thick at Bottom, and at least Tenn Foot High above the Ground, and laid in Lime Mortar, with Barracks for Fifteen men, to be built on or near the Spot where the Fort now stands."1

The General Court accepted this proposal of the proprietors, and ordered the sums of money asked for to be paid out of the treasury.

At a meeting of the Pejepscot proprietors, held August 2, 1715, it was voted: "That Capt. John Wentworth be writ to to despatch a Sloop from Piscatequa forthwith, with Four Thousand of Pine Plank and to fill up with good Boards to be landed at Pejepscot Falls.

"That Capt. Noyes be desired to despatch a Sloop from Newbury with Seventy or Eighty hogshds of good Stone Lime, the price here 21s p. hhd. 100 gallons.

"That a Sloop be sent from hence with Bricks, Shingles, Clapboards, Nails, Provisions, a horse Team, Six Wheelbarrows, Arms, Crows, Pickaxes, Mauls, Shovels, Blankets, Kettles, Pails, Dishes, Horse Cart, Ox Cart, and a pair of Trucks."2


1. Pejepscot Records.
2. Ibid.


The erection of this fort was commenced by Captain John Gyles in the month of August, 1715, on the ledge of rocks at the northern end of Maine Street, about where two of the factory boarding-houses now stand. It was completed in the December following.



[ Fort George, built of stone ]
FORT GEORGE, BRUNSWICK.

The walls of this fort were very thick and the stones were laid in mortar. It was finished with two bastions and two half-bastions, with flanks on the top sufficient for cannon. There was a large two-story dwelling-house erected in the fort, the roof appearing above the wall. The flag-staff was in the southwest corner of the southwest bastion.

This fort effectually resisted the aggressions of the Indians, and protected all the dwellings within reach of its cannon. In times of alarm, however, the inhabitants usually congregated inside its walls. To give an idea of the size and importance of this fort to the infant settlement, an illustration of it has been given, drawn originally from memory by Daniel Stone (the father of Narcissa and Daniel) ; and an account of the cost of the work, taken from the Pejepscot Records, is also inserted.

"AN ACCrT OF THE COST OF FORT GEORGE


MASONS WORK.
Benj Swain 88 daies at 5/ 1 night 1/6 22 1 6
Peter Herod 4/1518 
Hunniwell & Negro 7/62796
Dutch 4/1518 
Clark 4/1514 
 


 9710 

CARPENTERS WORK
Benj Haley & man 7/63039
Kemball 4/61823
Wheeler 4/162 
 


 648 

NIGHTS WORK OF TRADESMEN
as p acctt812



THE SOULDIERS AS LABOURERS
Nights, Days & Boatage5844
Mr. Watts' Boy cooking the Pott at 1/6676
 


 641110



MATERIALLS
Shell lime 500 bushlls at 14 d293 
40 hhds Stone lime5044
Boards 10821 feet.23163
Pine Plank 4 M1717
Oak Plank81910
Shingles 10 M at 16/8 
Clapboards 12 at 7/44 
Bricks 11 M1276
Nails Spikes &c 2023
Glass Casments34 
Great Hinges & Rivets26 
Small Hinges110 
Smiths Work 12 
Large Lock for Gate 14 
 


 17749



PROVISION ACCTT IN THE SEVERALL BILLS.
Mr Watts Bill28 
Mr Winthrops Bill1755
Mr Noyes' Bill4567
Mr Rucks Bill135 
Mr Minots Bill1233
 


 9083



SLOOP HIRE & PILOTING.
Lowles Sloop1718 
Stephens Sloop9  
Board Sloop910 
Mr Watts Sloop40  
Lowd Piloting1  
More Piloting &c .210 
Butler Boating Lime2510
Do Piloting   
 


 82310



SMALL EXPENSES.
Giv'n Gyles for dispatch1  
Gett: great Boat from Mill pond 9 
Port; & Cart, 129
Reckonings & Small Charges359
 


 576



Allowed Mr Watts his Trouble30  
Due to Mr Jno Minot to 5th Nov.188 
Charge enlisting men5  
1 horse lost915 
James Irish's work4  
Use of our Teams30 
Loss & Wear of Tools 2
 


 993 
      Total                            688     9     41



In the latter part of 1736, or early in 1737, the General Court of Massachusetts decided to dismantle this fort. This decision filled the settlers with dismay, and in consequence the following petition was sent to the legislature:-

"TO HIS EXCELLie JONATHAN BELCHER ESQr CAPTT GENERALL AND GOVERNOUR IN CHIEF IN AND OVER THE MASHECUSETS BAY.

"TO THE HONORABLE COUNCIL AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES METT IN GENERALL COURT.

"THE HUMBLE PETITION OF BRUNSWICK & TOPSUM, WITH ALL THE SCATTRED SETTLERS UNDER THE COVERT AND PROTECTION OF FORT GEORGE.

"HUMBLY SHEWETH.

"That we your Excellies & Honours Humble Petitioners, filled with Inexpressible fears & discouragements upon a vote (as we are Informed) pass'd both Honourable houses, of dismantling Fort George, beg leave in the most humble maner to lay our present Condition and circumstances before yr Excellie & Honours, which we claim not only as a right, but also glorys in, as our precious mercy and priviledge, to have access to your Excellie at the head of so many Honourable Patriots and fathers of our Contrey, whose great care & prudence in securing the rights and priviledges of the Subject in most Criticall Junctures, gives us hope that the revew of our case & Condition by the Golden Rule of righteousness will yet move yr Excellie & Honrs to prevent our fears by Continuing with us the visible mark of protection absolutely necessary for the Incouragment & safty of these Infant Settlements, with which vew we conceive this fort was erected and since continued, supported & defended; and if yr Inducing reasons then were good, Just, and becoming the Wisdom of our Senators, they continue yet in unrepealed force & virtue and concludes now with more strength for the Continuance of it; as there are many more lives and much more expensive labours and Industry under the covert &

1. Pejepscot Records.


defense of it alone, its advantagious Scituation, being no less a terror & restraint to Enemyes, than an Incouragment and Safe Retreat to your petitioners, there being no other fort or Garisson from which any aid, Succour, or Relief can be expected in case of necessity, for as for Richmond, we only observe what your Excellie and Several members of both Honourable houses are well acquainted with. It lies upon a direct line through a vast and almost impassible wilderness at or about 20 miles by a modest computation from us, and further by water, which passage is attended with unavoidable danger in case of extremity as many last war can witness from experience. So that there is more probability of our being relived by Castle William, than from thence, and further we beg leave to observe to yr Excellie & Honrs that Brunswick, time without mind, has been the place of the annual Randevouze of all the tribes, which always has been licentious, vile, and Riotous, but now in a great measure broak by the prudent care and circumspection of the present Comander, in his civil & military Capacity, the former useless were it not Joyn'd and Suported by the latter: what can yr Petitioners expect, upon the dismantling the fort. but to be the Melancoly Spectators, or rather the helpless miserable Sufferers under the returns of their wild extravigances, to the great danger of our lives & libertyes. But should it be Suggested that our lives and libertyes are Secured by the peace, and So the Continuance of the fort is an unnecesary Charge to the province, in answer to which we beg leave to Observe to yr Excellie & Honrs That this peace cost the province much blood & treasure; & therefore the dearer bought, the greater care and caution is necessary to the preservation of it; which is always a posture of defence, & readiness to resent the violations of it, according to the generall maxims of policy, practised by all States, Kingdoms, & Comonwealths in the time of best concerted peace, always Jealous of their rights and Securing their fronteers, without which the publick faith in many Instances, has given way and yielded to the rapid Stream of Interest and ambition.

"further, all the advantages our Infant Settlements in the eastward have Receiv'd by the peace, are, under God, Owing to yr Excellies & Honrs great Wisdom, Care, & Vigilance, and neither to the love nor faith of Indians, they being by the Victorious arms of the province forc'd into peace, & what flow's not from Choyce but necessity, can only be suposed binding till oportunity offer.

"That their love cant be depended upon is obvious to us, conversant among them, who look upon us, as unjust usurpers & intruders upon their rights and priviledges, and spoilers of their idle way of living.

"They claim not only the wild beasts of the forest, and fowls of the air, but also fishes of Sea & rivers, and so with an ill eye looks upon our Salmon fishery, and no doubt would disturb our fishers were it not under the Imediate protection of the fort, as Severall can witness who have fished in undefended places; besides they Cant hide their spleen & Resentment against those of our Setlers, who in the late war acted in the province Servise (a good many such we have) the peace has not secured some such from violent assaults, houses rifled, & peace purchased by gratifications pleasing to them, but with those vile abuses, & gross violations of peace we bore without giving yr Excellie & Honrs trouble by complaints, while we Injoy'd the benefit of the fort, which cannot be expected when left as Catalans to the unbridled rage of such Enemyes, who Embalm's the memory of the vilest murtherers, transmits them to posterity, who are ambitious enough to Copy these heroick virtues in their ancesters; their faith besides being the effect of force is under the Influence of that popish principle, of no faith to be kept with hereticks and the Sacraficing such has always been accounted meritorious, what can be more agreeable to them, than purchase Heaven hereafter, by raising their fame & reputations as Heroes here.

"If such principles & practices promisses a longer lifed peace than opertunity offers, and whether the dismantling fort George gives not such an opertunity, by having So many lives at their discretion, whose circumstances scarce alow two to be mutual aiding to one & other, we beg leave to Submitt to yr Excellies & Honrs Serious thoughts, wisdom & Judgment. If we have forfeited our Claim and right to protection, we beg to be punnished according to the known equitable laws of the province, but we pray yr Excellie and Honours may not give us up to the rage of Enemyes, tho' under the mask and varnish of peace, a punishment never yet Inflicted upon Brittish Subjects; In which Circumstances what shall we do? tamely to Submitt to Salvage rage is beneath the spirits of free born Subjects, to venture our lives in defence of our long toil & labour, tho' we shall be the first sufferers, it is easy to see the consequences will reach much further, if we fly for Safety, we must leave our estates behind, which are the purchase of Industry in Subduing a wilderness, and then we become a burthensome Charge to Charitable and well disposed Christians.

"But we hope better things and such as are worthy your Excellie at the head of So many wise Senators, to whose wisdom we submitt our Condition and circumstances, Earnestly begging in the most humble and dutiful maner, that your Excellie according to the great trust

reposed in you, and Royal power wherewith you are Cloathed, with the advice & concurrence of both Honourable houses, may prevent our fears and give us a Reviving under the Continuance of the fort as the sensible pledge of your Excellies protection and Instance of their Honrs wisdom, care, & Goodness, in Securing the rights and lives of many subjects, and as in Duty bound

"Your Humble Petioners Shall ever pray
"We by apointment in behalf of ourselves & 20 families in Brunswick, Subscribes our names at Brunswick meeting-house this 25th of April 1737[ signatures of Robert Speer, Wm. Woodside, James McFarland, David Giveen, and James Duning ]
"We by apointment in behalf ourselves and 24 families in Topsum, subscribe our names at Brunswick meeting-- house this 25th of Aprill 1737[ signatures of Jacob Clarke, Thomas Thom, Hugh Minory ]
"I by apointment in behalf of 15 Circumjacent families do subscribe my name at Brunswick meeting-house this 25th of April 17371[ signature of Sam'll Hinckley ]



Notwithstanding the foregoing petition the fort was soon afterwards


1. Pejepscot Papers.


dismantled, and the property reverted to the proprietors, who, December 19, 1758, leased it, together with all the buildings and land connected with it, to Mr. George Harwood. He occupied the premises until November 1, 1761.1

At a meeting of the Pejepscot proprietors, held October 8, 1761, Belcher Noyes was instructed to execute a deed of the old fort, with the buildings and land belonging to it, and the privilege of the stream at the falls, "the one half to Jeremiah Moulton, Esquire, the other half to Captain David Dunning, they paying unto the said Belcher Noyes the sum of one hundred thirty three pounds six shillings and eight pence, lawful money, for which sum he is to account with the Proprietors."2 This sum amounted to about 1,000 old tenor.3 On November 19, 1761, Belcher Noyes gave Harwood a written order to surrender the fort and buildings to either Moulton or Dunning.4

The ruins of this fort, with some portions of the wall yet standing, were plainly to be seen as late as 1802, and Mr. Dean Swift distinctly remembers playing upon these ruins when a boy. That gentleman is authority for saying the materials of the old fort were used in the construction of the foundations of some of the dwelling-houses now standing, and that some of the stones of which it was built form parts of the cellar-walls of the house owned and occupied by the late Doctor John D. Lincoln, of the Dunning house on the brow of the hill near the First Parish Meeting-House, of the Tontine Hotel, and other old buildings.

BLOCK-HOUSES AND GARRISONS.

The first fortified places in this vicinity, other than the fort, were probably erected by the Pejepscot proprietors in 1716, unless there is reason to suppose that Purchase, Stevens, and others of the very earliest settlers had garrisoned houses. In the record of a meeting of the proprietors, which was held October 9, 1716, the following occurs:-

"Agreed with Mr. Benjamin Swain to build the Chimneys in our House at Maquoit, and in our House at Small Point: the stack in each house to have four Fires at Fourty Shillings pr Fire, Each Brick Arch under the four Chimneys to be at Fourty Shillings pr Arch: The Stonework to be Four Shillings & 6d pr Perch, the Stuff to be at the Place, sd Swain to allow Boston Price for what Labour he has done by our Hands."

There is no positive evidence that the above were fortified buildings, but it is safe to presume so, since it is known that there were, in 1724


1. Pejepscot Records.
2. Ibid.
3. Pejepscot Papers.
4. Ibid.


and subsequently, a block-house and a well-fortified storehouse at Maquoit.

THE DUNNING GARRISON. - A short distance southwest of where the post-office now stands, in what was known as the Schwartkin garden, or in the rear of the McLellan building, where a white cottage now is, David Dunning erected a strong timber garrison or block-house. It was two stories high, forty feet long, and twenty-two feet wide. The second story projected about three or four feet over the first, and the walls had loop-holes for the purpose of enabling the inmates to fire upon the Indians when necessity required. There was a tower on the top, from which the teams could be watched on their way to and from the Merriconeag Marshes.

The above-mentioned garrison was probably the largest one, but there are known to have been many others in different parts of the town, and there were probably some of which no account has been preserved. The location of all that were known will be given.

THE GIVEEN GARRISON. - On the elevation between New Wharf and Pennell's Wharf there was a garrison erected at an early date by David Giveen.

THE HINKLEY GARRISON. -There was a garrison in 1747 at New Meadows, which was built by Deacon Samuel Hinkley and two of his sons-in-law, named Thompson. It stood on the elevation in the rear of the barn now owned by Mr. Bartlett Adams, and the outline of the garrison is still easily traced.

HAM'S GARRISON. - There was a garrison on Ham's Hill, near the head of New Meadows River, on the road to Bath. It was situated a few rods south of the road, on the top of the hill, on a ledge of rocks just back of the barn of Mr. Peterson, the present owner of the lot. It was near this garrison that Seth Hinkley was killed, in May, 1747. It was probably built or occupied by Joseph Smith, a tanner. No remains of this garrison are to be seen at the present day, though many of the large, square timbers of which it was composed remained on the site within the memory of persons now living. It was much exposed to attacks from the Indians on their route from New Meadows to Pejepscot.1

MCFARLAND's GARRISON. - About 1730, James McFarland built a two-story block-house on what is now the corner of Maine and Mason Streets, where Day's Block now is. In this garrison Reverend Robert Dunlap lived for some years after he came to town.2


1. McKeen, MS. Lecture.
2. Pejepscot Papers.

This garrison was of hewn timber, forty feet long by twenty feet wide. It was taken down a short time before the close of the Indian war.

MINOT'S GARRISON. -John Minot had a garrison and a storehouse about five rods west of where the late Henry Minot's house stood at Mair Point. The date of its erection is not known.

THE SKOLFIELD GARRISON. -This garrison was situated near where Mr. Peter Woodward now lives. It was built and owned by Thomas Skolfield. The date of its erection is not known.

THE GURNET POINT GARRISON is said to have been built and owned by Captain John Gatchell.1

THE SPEAR GARRISON. -Nearly opposite the old meeting-house which stood on the Maquoit road, about a mile from the colleges, was once a garrison built by William and Robert Spear, and occupied by the latter. The wall was sixty or seventy feet in circumference, and ten feet high. Inside there was a one-story, gambrel-roofed house, which faced the east, and the back of which formed a part of the timber wall. This garrison was once attacked by the Indians. Mr. Spear had placed some loose boards across one corner of the wall. An Indian climbed up on this corner in order to get inside and unbar the gates, but the boards extending outside of the wall, his weight caused them to tip up, and he fell back into an old sleigh, the noise, of course, arousing Mr. Spear.2

According to another account, the Indian fell back into a hog-pen, and it was the unusual grunting of its disturbed porcine occupant that awoke Mr. Spear.

Besides the garrisons which have been mentioned were dwellings which the occupants made proof against bullets by lining them with studs four inches thick. These houses had also apertures in different rooms, so that their owners might defend their own castle. Guns were kept in readiness for use in the house, and were carried by the settlers wherever they went.

The GUN-HOUSE. - The old gun-house, which stood on Centre Street, on the lot adjoining that of the present school-house, was built in 1808, and was destroyed by fire in 1809. It was at once rebuilt, and was occupied as a gun-house for the Brunswick artillery for many years. It is now a dwelling on the southern side of Franklin Street, near its eastern end.

The Powder-House. - The original powder-house was built in


1. McKeen, MS. Lecture.
2. Pejepscot Papers.


1804-5 by Samuel Melcher, who agreed to erect it for twenty dollars. In 1805 it was examined by a committee, and declared by them to be worth only four dollars and fifty cents. This amount the town paid, but would not accept the building. In 1816 the town authorized the selectmen to build a new powder-house at an expense of one hundred and fifty dollars. This building stood on the top of the hill on Pleas-ant Street, which gave to the hill the name of Powder-House Hill.

TOWN-HOUSE. - For almost one hundred years after its incorporation the town of Brunswick had no building of its own in which to hold its meetings, except the First Parish Meeting-House.

The first movement towards a town-house was in 1835. At a meeting of the town, held April 27, of this year, it was voted to build a town-house without unnecessary delay. In 1836 seven hundred dollars was appropriated, and a building committee was chosen, who were authorized to borrow three hundred dollars additional. The house was built this year on land given by Reverend William Allen and David Dunlap, Esquire.


[ the town house, a brick building with four large columns in the front ]


It was built of brick, one story high, with fifteen-foot posts. The ground dimensions were sixty by forty-two feet. Richard T. Dunlap, Jacob Pennell, and Joseph McKeen were the building committee. The town voted to purchase a lot, at a price not exceeding fifty dollars, on the southeast corner of the lot on which President Allen's academy stood. The lot was to be four rods in front and to run back ten rods. The building committee were authorized to obtain any other lot, if deemed more desirable. They selected the one already mentioned, and the house was built on Maine Street, about opposite the southern end of the college grounds. Between March 16 and the June following, in the year 1857, this building was burnt, and the town, at its next meeting, authorized the selectmen to dispose of the ruins and lot. Since that time the town has been without a town hall, and its meetings have been held in halls leased for the purpose.

MEETING-HOUSES.
The first meeting-house of the First Parish was situated about a mile south of the present edifice of that parish. It was located in the road in front of the graveyard. It faced south, and the travelled part of the road passed by the west end of the building.

The parsonage was a small, one-story house, situated just south of the graveyard, and faced the road. In front of the meeting-house stood the stocks, and in the rear was the whipping-post.

North of the graveyard was a pound, with a substantial fence, gate, lock, and key.

The boards for this meeting-house are said to have been brought from Richmond Fort. The interior was never finished; the walls were left bare, and as there was no ceiling, the roof-timbers were exposed to view. The pews were large and square, with seats on three sides. Over the pulpit was a sounding-board, which was supported by two iron rods running obliquely from the posts to the front of the sounding-board. During the Revolution the east end of the house, next to the roof, was partitioned off and used as a powder magazine. The building was never warmed by a stove or fireplace. In severe weather many persons carried foot-stoves to meeting with them.


FIRST MEETING-HOUSE IN BRUNSWICK.


The municipal doings of the town regarding this building are of interest and are therefore inserted here. The first movement looking to the erection of the building was made in 1719, as will be seen from

the following extract1 from the Records of the Township of Brunswick:-

"Att a Leagual Town meeting in Brunswick Jany 9: 1719 Voted, That the Timber for a Meeting House Be Prepared Raised & underpind as soon as may bee, That whereas To methodize oversee & finish the work Capt Gyles, Elder Cochron, John Cochron, James Starrat & Joseph Heath are Chosen, This is Their authority for their proceedings in the Sd work. And the Towns obligation to Discharge ye Debt Contracted by Sd Committee for ye Compleating ye above Sd work

Voted, That whereas it may be an ease to Sum if they may Discharge part of their Dues toward ye work by their own Labour therein as accation may Serve, The master workman observing Each mans abillity & Labour Shall state their wages in proportion there unto yr So no injustice be Done

"JOSEPH HEATH Town Clk"

It would appear that little or nothing was done at that time, however, as in 1721 it was voted:-

"That the former Projections of raising a meeting house be revived. That thirty pounds money be raised by rate to carry on ye Sd work with a proviso that Each Inhabitant may be imployd in the work so far as his ability & proportion of ye Sd Rate will alow Ye value of Each mans Daily labour to be Stated by the master workman & returns to ye Committee for over Seeing Sd work. Such part of the Sd rate only to be Collected in money as shall be soficieut to pay the said master Workman his wages, and also the arrearages which Capt Gyles & Heath Stand obliged to pay on ye Towns Account. The work formerly Done in preparing Timber For ye Sd House to be reduised out of the rate of those who Did it. And Capt Gyles, Mr Wharton, John Cochron, James Smith, & Joseph Heath to be a Committee to methodize ye work."2

The meeting-house was erected chiefly at the expense of the Pejep-scot proprietors, the agreement being that the inhabitants should erect the frame of the building and that it should be completed by the proprietors. Sashes, glass, doors, etc., were probably procured in Boston. The following account shows a part of the cost of the building:-


1. Brunswick Records in Pejepscot Collection.
2. Ibid.


THE GENTLEMEN PROPRIETORS OF BRUNSWICK

To B. LARRABEE DR

July 28 1735

The account of stuff &c for the meeting house   
To 1070 ft Joyce Plank & Board @ 60/ p M340
    1438 ft Clear Boards at 80/51417
To fetching stuff from ye mill 3 men 2 days at 6/1166
To Gundolow hire 2 days at 4/080
To 4 days haling Boards Joyce & Shingles @ 15/3  
To haling posts for scaffolds 10 
To 2000 Clapboards @ 90/9  
To bringing them from Topsham 3 men 1 day 15 
To 5 thick Boards for the Pulpitt 13 
To 6000 of shingles at 20/6  
To 2180 feet of Joyce88 
To 857 feet of 2-inch plank52
To 500 Merchantable Boards110 
To 1550 feet of Clear Boards64 
Septr   
To haling boards 3 days 2 men 4 oxen @ 24/312 
To Boating Boards, Joyce &c from North Yarmo 2 men 4 days at 6/ .28 
Jan'y   
To half a thousand of Board Nails 16 
To 14 thousand of Clapboard Nails110 
To treating the workmen 66
To Gundalow hire 15/ 1 man 2 days @ 6/17 
To 3 pair of rais'd Aches at 4/6 126
To 200 board Nails 66
To 300 Clapboard nails 56
To Speaks, brads, hangings for the Canopy3154
To paid Capt Woodside for assisting in haling the Stuff 15 
To Banisters for ye Pews & Pulpitt stairs1176
To paid Mr Pearse for work done on the meeting house1232
To paid said Pearse5  
 


  £19942

In 1755 the town voted to"repair the windows, long seats, and the underpinning of the meeting house."

[1763.] In the year 1763 the town voted to set off and sell thir-teen pews on the floor and sixteen pews in the gallery of the west meeting-house, "The oldest inhabitants that have no pews to have the preference in buying said pews." The proceeds were to be used to defray the expense of repairing and finishing the meeting-house.

[1797.] Some difficulty appears to have arisen in 1797 in regard to the jurisdiction over and responsibility for the meeting-house, as in

March the town passed several rather contradictory votes in regard to the matter. In the first place it was voted that the town had no right to repair the west meeting-house, and that it ought to be repaired by the owners of pews.1 Then it was decided by vote that the whole town should have all the privileges in the meeting-house that had been heretofore enjoyed. Third, that if there was any vacant space for pews, the proprietors had a right to sell it, and to use the proceeds for repairing the meeting-house. Finally, it was voted that the owners of pews were not the sole owners of the meeting-house.

The meeting-house was that year cut in two in the middle, one half was moved a few feet, and an addition inserted, the width of two pews.2 It is not probable that any repairs were made to this building after this date, as in 1806 the First Parish erected a new building on the site of their present edifice.

The old building was unoccupied for many years, excepting for occasional services. At one time, probably about 1828, it was occupied for a short time by the Baptists. It was destroyed by fire in 1834, the fire being the work of an incendiary.

The second meeting-house of the First Parish was erected at New Meadows about the year 1756. Previous to that time services had been held in a barn situated near the present residence of Bartlett Adams. In 1755 a proposition was made that the town should build a meeting-house at the east end of the town, but it was defeated. A committee was however chosen by the town to solicit subscriptions for this purpose, and the building was erected not long afterwards upon the ground now (1877) occupied by the barn of Mr. Ephraim Wilcox. Although the building was erected by subscription, yet inasmuch as those worshipping in it were members of the First Parish, and as the minister of the First Parish was instructed by vote of the town to preach at New Meadows a certain portion of the time, this meeting--house may properly be called the second meeting-house of the First Parish.

This building stood unoccupied for many years, and was finally car-ied off piecemeal, from time to time, by those living in the vicinity, for fences, out-buildings, etc. The last remnant was carried away about the year 1834.

The third meeting-house of the First Parish was begun in 1806, and was completed the next year. It was built by individuals who sold


1. The Baptists had withdrawn.
2. Mrs. Lamb, Dean Swift, and other aged citizens.


the pews, and then the building was made over to the parish. The land was bought of Robert D. Dunning and William Stanwood, and not, as is believed by many, of the college. The college, however, contributed something towards the erection of the building, for the privilege of holding Commencement and other exercises in it, but has never had any other ownership in it than the right to the pews in the south gallery.


 [ third meeting house in Brunswick, a two-story building with a tall cupola ]

This meeting-house was built under the direction of Mr. Samuel Melcher, who was a superior workman. It is said that the underpinning for this meeting-house was brought here from Yarmouth, being hauled over Crip's Ledge.

Reverend Samuel Eaton, of Harpswell, in his seventy-fourth year, and who had but just recovered from a fractured leg, made a prayer on the frame before it was raised. The outside was nearly finished before September 2, 1806, and the inside was fitted, temporarily, for the

exercises of the first Commencement at Bowdoin College. The first bell ever rung in town was placed on this meeting-house. It was bought by subscription, but precisely when it was bought is not known. This meeting-house was also the first to be warmed by a stove. In 1807 the building was dedicated. President Appleton preached the sermon from the text, "He hath loved our nation, and hath built us a synagogue."

In 1833 this building was remodelled and made more pleasant and commodious. In 1845 it was taken down, and the present edifice was erected upon its site. The spire of the present edifice was blown off in 1866.

The Conference Room of the First Parish, on Centre Street, was erected in 1823.

In 1841 it was sold with the land, and the building on School Street, which was erected by the Second Baptist Society, and which had been occupied by them as their place of worship, was purchased and refitted for the Congregational vestry, and is still used as such.

BAPTIST MEETING-HOUSES. -The first meeting-house erected by the Baptists was built at Maquoit in 1798 or 1799. It stood about a mile below the old First Parish Meeting-House, on the right-hand side of the road where the old Maquoit burying-ground is. It was somewhat similar in appearance to the old First Parish Meeting-House, having no steeple, and being roughly finished. In 1853 it was sold to Samuel Dunning and moved to his ship-yard for a boarding-house.

The next building erected by the Baptists was at New Meadows, in the year 1800. In 1848 it was taken down, and the present edifice erected on its site.

The third Baptist meeting-house was what is now known as the Congregational Vestry. It was erected in 1826 by the "Second Baptist Society," and occupied by them for about ten years. In 1841 it was sold to the First Parish.

The fourth building erected by the Baptists was the one now occupied by the Catholics, on Federal Street. It was erected in 1829 by the Federal Street Baptist Society. It cost about eight hundred dollars. It was sold to the Methodists in 1836, and was occupied by them until the erection of their present house in 1866. Subsequently it was sold to the Catholics.

The Maine Street Baptist Church was erected in 1840. In 1867 it was remodelled and greatly improved, at a cost of $2,000. The pulpit and platform were remodelled and finished in black-walnut and

chestnut, to correspond with the newly arranged pews, which were also made of chestnut and without doors. The aisles were carpeted, the ceiling was frescoed, and gas fixtures were put in.

FREE-WILL BAPTIST MEETING-HOUSES. -The first Free-Will Baptist Meeting-House was erected in 1810. It was a small, one-story building, and stood quite near the Freeport line. What became of this building is not known. The society worshipping in it afterwards, in 1827, united with the Universalists and Congregationalists in building the Union Meeting-House at Growstown.

The Village Church of the Free-Will Baptists, on O'Brien Street, was erected in 1876, the society having previously worshipped in Lemont Hall.

THE UNION MEETING-HOUSE AT GROWSTOWN was erected in 1827. This house was built jointly by the Free-Will Baptists, the Congregationalists, and the Universalists. Reverend Sylvanus Cobb, a Universalist, preached the first sermon in it. It is still used by the Free-Will Baptists, and although it was built for a Union meeting-house, they have from the first had control of it for the greater part of the time.

UNIVERSALIST MEETING-HOUSES. -The first church edifice erected by the Universalists was situated on Federal Street, opposite the present High-School building, on the lot now owned by the Unitarians. It was built in 1828, and cost about seven hundred dollars, which in those days was quite a sum of money. Mr. Anthony C. Raymond built the house, chiefly at his own expense. When completed he sold pews to fifteen persons, and subsequently a few more pews were disposed of, but he was always the principal owner. The house was dedicated November 24, 1829. In 1847 or 1848 the building was sold to the Maquoit Baptist Society, and it was removed to the junction of the old Harpswell and Mair Point roads, where it received the name of the Forest Church. In 1875 it was sold to the Grangers, moved back to the village, and placed at the corner of Union Street and Gilman Avenue, where it is used as a hall.

The second church building erected by the Universalists was what is now known as the MASON STREET CHURCH. It was built in 1846, the basement of the building and the land being the exclusive property of Mr. John L. Swift. The dedicatory sermon was preached by Reverend E. G. Brooks, of Bath (now Reverend Doctor Brooks of the Church of the Messiah, Philadelphia). The prayer of consecration was offered by Reverend George Bates, of Turner, recently deceased. Other parts of the services were performed by Reverend Giles Bailey,

the pastor, by Reverend Seth Stetson, and by Reverend W. C. George. The town clock and bell on this building were purchased chiefly by subscription, by citizens of Brunswick and Topsham, in 1847, the town of Brunswick appropriating, however, the sum of two hundred dollars toward the purchase of the clock. Colonel Andrew Dennison was the most prominently connected with the movement, and the subject was started by him. He transacted the business, and the bills were made in his name as agent for the town. A bell weighing 1,700 pounds was purchased of Henry N. Hooper & Co., of Boston, but it was unsatisfactory in tone and was returned. Another bell was then purchased of George H. Holbrook, East Medway, Massachusetts, weighing 1,794 pounds, and costing $479.57. The same bell is now in use. The clock was purchased of Howard & Davis, Boston. It cost, including dial, hands, etc., and expenses of freight and putting up, $340.30.

METHODIST CHURCH. - The Methodist Church on Pleasant Street is the only one ever erected by that denomination in Brunswick. It was built in 1866. The society had previously worshipped in the building on Federal Street which they bought of the Baptists.

The new edifice on Pleasant Street was begun in the spring of 1866 and was completed in December of the same year. It cost with the lot $9,000; nearly the whole amount was raised by voluntary subscription and by the sale of pews. There was, however, a debt of about $1,000, which was finally paid in the year 1872.

On December 5, 1866, the chapel was dedicated with the following services:-

Invocation, by Reverend E. A. Helmershausen; address, by Reverend J. Colby; hymn (964th), by Reverend L. D. Wardwell; prayer, by Reverend D. B. Randall; reading of Scriptures, by Reverend C. C. Cone ; hymn (968th), by Reverend Mark Trafton; sermon, by the same, followed by an offertory, psalm of consecration, presentation, declaration, prayer of consecration, anthem, doxology, and benediction.

In 1875 the church was thoroughly repaired, some marked improvements made, and the lot inclosed with a handsome and durable fence. The cost of these repairs and improvements was about six hundred and fifty dollars, which was promptly paid.

ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, EPISCOPAL. - This church was erected in 1844 and 1845, from plans furnished by Richard Upjohn, architect, of New York. The cost of the building and land was about $4,000, most of which was contributed by friends in Rhode Island, New York, and Philadelphia. It was consecrated according to the use and liturgy of

the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, on Friday, July 11, 1845.

The deed of donation was read by Reverend Thomas F. Fales, rector of the parish, and the sentence of consecration, by Reverend Robert B. Hall, of the Diocese of Rhode Island. Morning prayer was conducted by Reverend Messrs. James Pratt, of Portland, and Alexander Burgess, of Augusta. The rector read the ante-communion service, assisted by Reverend R. B. Hall, who read the epistle, and Reverend Francis Peck, of the Diocese of Maryland, who read the gospel. The consecration sermon was preached by Bishop Henshaw, of Rhode Island.

Various changes have been made in the church. In 1858 the present arched ceiling was put in, under the open-timbered roof, to improve the acoustic properties of the building. Changes were made in the chancel furniture, but the most noticeable improvements were made by Reverend Mr. Taylor, in August, 1873, which have made the church so beautiful. The memorial window to Bishop Burgess was placed in the chancel in 1868, and that to Reverend Doctor Ballard in November, 1871.

OTHER BUILDINGS.

A description of the dwellings occupied by Thomas Purchase, Stevens, and others, among the very early settlers, would be interesting, but there is no record or tradition concerning them. The following account of A Frontier Home, copied from Sewall's " Ancient Dominions of Maine," will probably give as good an idea of those ancient habitations as can now be obtained from any source:-

"A simple structure of logs was reared from the buts of the ancient trees, fallen by the pioneer axe on the spot where they were cut down for a clearing. The walls of a rectangular structure thus built were covered with bark or thatch. The enclosed earth was excavated for a cellar, which was unwalled. The excavation was then planked over with riven logs of pine, and a trap-door in the centre of the flooring let you into the bowels of the primitive structure, consisting of a single room below and a garret above, to which a ladder led the ascent. In one corner of the log-walled room, a large fireplace opened its cavernous depths. The back and one side was built of stone, while a wooden post set the opposite jamb, supporting a horizontal beam for a mantel-piece. Through the bark, thatch, or slab roof, or outside and up the back wall of the building, was reared a bob-work of cleft wood, whose interstice were filled with mortar-clay, which, in place of

brick and mortar, was called 'cat and clay.' On the hearth, usually a flat stone, an ample store of wood was heaped, which was felled at the door, while the capacious fireplace, glowing with light and heat from the blazing hearth-pile, not only illumined the whole interior, but afforded a snug corner for the indiscriminate stowage of a bevy of little ones."

Allusions to other buildings which are not now in existence, but the location of which is a matter of interest, will be found in other connections. What follows relates only to such buildings as are known to have been built in the last century or in the early part of this century, and which are still in existence, either in whole or in part.

Probably the oldest house now standing in town is what is known as the ROBERT THOMPSON HOUSE. It is on the south side of the road to Harding's Station, and is the first house to the east after passing Cook's Corner. It was erected by Cornelius Thompson, and has been owned in the Thompson family until 1869. Cornelius Thompson owned the lot in 1738-9, and his first child was born in 1741. If, as is probable, the house was erected previously to the birth of this child, the house is not less than one hundred and thirty-six years old.

 [ Robert Thompson House, a large shingled home ]


The chimney to this house is about four feet square at the top. The bricks are laid in clay. The flooring boards are sixteen to

eighteen inches wide, and are treenailed instead of nailed. The west room, or parlor, is panelled on the sides and ends up to the windows, and is plastered above. The sides of the building on the north and east are bricked between the studs as high as the ceiling of the lower story. This was done for warmth. In the corner of the parlor is a buffet with shelves, etc., elaborately moulded by hand. The frame of the house is of massive timber. The door-hinges are of wrought-iron, large, clumsy, and of curious construction.

The house faces the south. The present road north of the house was not in existence when the house was built. The occupants had a private road from the house leading southeasterly to the New Meadows River road, which was only a short distance off.

The next oldest house in town is the HINKLEY House, now owned and occupied by Chapin Weston. It is just north of the railroad, near Harding's Station. It was occupied by Doctor Dunken as early as 1775, and probably about 1770, as this latter was the date of his marriage. It was occupied, before Dunken had it, by Gideon Hinkley. Hinkley's first child was born in 1758, and his last one in 1770. If the house was built by Hinkley, it was probably erected about 1756 or 1757, and on that supposition would now be one hundred and twenty years old. It may, however, have been built before Hinkley's time, as Thomas Westbrook owned the lot in 1737; and if the house was built by the latter, it would be nearly one hundred and forty years old, which would make it an older house than the Robert Thompson house just described.

Jacob Weston, grandfather of Chapin, bought this house in 1783 or 1784, and it has remained in the Weston family ever since. It is similar in appearance and in construction to the Thompson house, and it does not therefore require a more particular description.

The house now occupied by Deacon James Smith, at New Meadows, was built by Samuel Melcher prior to 1768.

The house once owned and occupied by Nathaniel Larrabee, and which was built somewhere about the time of the Revolution, is still in existence, and is owned by Grows & Bowker and used as a storehouse. It is at New Meadows.

The dwelling-house now occupied by the family of the late Doctor John D. Lincoln is the oldest in the village. It was built in 1772 by Captain John Dunlap, who lived in it until the year 1800. During its occupation by Captain Dunlap it was a public house, and at one time Talleyrand was a guest in it. Between 1800 and 1806 it was occupied by Captain Richard Tappan. From 1806 to 1820,

Henry Putnam, Esquire, lived in it. At the latter date it passed into the hands of Doctor Isaac Lincoln (whose wife was a daughter of Captain Dunlap), and from him it descended to his son, its late owner. There was a store in the yard south of the house, which was afterwards moved across the street, and is now occupied by Mrs. Griffin as a millinery store.

What is now the town Poorhouse was built about 1773 by Thomas Thompson, a cousin of the brigadier, so that it is now over one hundred years old.1

The residence of Mrs. Joseph MeKeen, on McKeen Street, was built in 1776, or soon after, by Samuel Stanwood, who occupied it until 1804, when he sold it to President McKeen. It was occupied by the latter from 1807 until his death, and has been occupied by the family of the late Joseph McKeen, Esquire, since that time.

The building now occupied as an office by the Eastern Express Company was built in the latter part of the last century and was once used as a tobacco manufactory by Coffin & Thurston. It then stood near the corner of O'Brien Street, where is now the residence of Mr. Benjamin Greene. It was afterwards removed by Daniel Stone and used as a store. The date of its erection and by whom it was built are not known.

The building now standing on the northwest corner of Centre Street, occupied in the lower part by John H. Brackett, tailor, and by Larkin Snow, grocer, and the upper story of which is used as a tenement, was built with one story in 1797 by Colonel William Stanwood. In 1804 he added another story to it and fitted it up as a law office for his son, David Stanwood, Esquire. The lower part was used for a store. This building stands within a few feet of the spot where McFarland's blacksmith shop once stood. The latter was torn down in 1797 and Stanwood's shop erected in its place.

The house now occupied by Mr. R. T. D. Melcher, on Maine Street, was built in 1798 by Mr. Shimuel Owen, and afterwards was sold to Mrs. Greenleaf, and was subsequently sold to the present occupant.

The next house north of the above, which formerly stood very near to it, was built by Shimuel Owen, and was occupied by him until he built the Melcher house. Colonel Estabrook lived in this house in 1802. Mr. Owen at length sold it to a Mr. Read, a brother-in-law of his wife. It was afterwards sold to Captain Samuel Dunlap. His


1. Dean Swift.


widow married Reverend George Lamb, whom she survived. She still owns and occupies the property.

The house of Caleb Cushing, now owned and occupied by James Alexander, on Maine Street, was built in 1799.

A portion of the residence of Mr. William Pierce, on Lincoln Street, is quite old. It belonged to a house which was originally hauled from Fish-House Hill by a tailor named Robinson. In 1801 Robert Orr, Esquire, bad an office in it. It was afterwards owned and occupied by Doctor Charles Coffin, who sold it to Captain Thomas Growse, and he, in 1810, sold it to Mr. Ebenezer Nichols. Nichols kept it as a public house for a few years, and his widow afterwards occupied it. After she left it the building was occupied as a private dwelling until 1838, when it was purchased by Mr. L. T. Jackson, was taken down, and rebuilt as a part of Mr. Pierce's house.

The white cottage between Doctor Palmer's and Mr. Benjamin Dennison's, on Maine Street, was built and occupied previous to 1802 by Mr. Aaron Melcher. It was afterwards owned by Isaac Gates, a lawyer, and was sold by him to Major Rowe, a Revolutionary soldier, who still later sold it to Mr. L. T. Jackson, by whose heirs it is still owned.

The present residence of the Honorable Charles J. Gilman was built by Captain John Dunlap in 1800, and it was for many years one of the finest residences in town. It is still a handsome abode. The small dwelling-house in Mr. Gilman's yard was built previous to 1800, and was occupied for some years by a watch-maker named Bisbee, whose shop stood nearly opposite.

The house erected by John Dunning, a few years later, is the one still standing on the corner of Union and Pleasant Streets, and is now known as the Samuel Jackson house.

What is now the back portion of Mr. S. S. Wing's house, on O'Brien Street, once belonged to old Timothy Weymouth, a wheelwright, and a very eccentric man, who lived in it about 1802. In 1806 this house was moved into the woods to make way for the then new meeting-house of the First Parish. It was afterwards removed below Mr. Daniel Stone's house, and still later was moved to its present location.

The present residence of Doctor Nathaniel T. Palmer was originally a one-story building, erected by Ebenezer Nichols. He afterwards added another story and lived in it, following the trade of a shoemaker. It was afterwards purchased by Secomb Jordan, a deputy sheriff, who fitted it up and improved its appearance, and sold it to

David Stanwood, who continued to live in it until it was sold to Abner Bourne. From the latter it passed to Doctor Solomon Cushman, and from him to Doctor Palmer.

The gambrel-roofed house on Centre Street, near Federal, now occupied by Mrs. Pierce, was originally connected with the residence of Doctor Goss, at Maquoit. It was hauled to the village early in this century, by Doctor Page, and was used by him as an office, and was then situated in his yard, just south of his house. It was afterwards removed to its present location.

The house now owned by the heirs of Rodney Forsaith, on Maine Street, was built, in 1794, by Major Swift, father of Dean and John L. Swift.

The house now owned and occupied by Captain L. J. Joyce, on Noble Street, was originally the old tavern which stood in the northwest corner of the college yard, and was afterwards taken down, and rebuilt in its present location. It was originally built in 1803.

The old house just north of the residence of 'Theodore S. McLellan, on Maine Street, was moved there from Maquoit, previous to 1802, by a tanner by the name of Heath. This old house has had many occupants. It is now owned by Mr. McLellan, and leased by him as a tenement.

The Page house, next south of the Mason Street Church, which is now occupied as a boarding-house, with stores below, was built in 1804 for a store, and was occupied by Jacob Abbot and Gustavus Goss. It was subsequently owned and occupied by Doctor Jonathan Page.

The Cleaveland house, on Federal Street, now the summer residence of Honorable Peleg W. Chandler, of Boston, was built in 1806 by the late Professor Parker Cleaveland, then a tutor in Bowdoin College.

There are doubtless other houses than those that have been enumerated, which might be entitled to mention on account of their age or because in some way noted, but the foregoing are all in regard to which any thing definite has been ascertained.





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